Archives par mot-clé : guerre du Viêt Nam

Tran Ngoc Chau, Vietnamese counterinsurgency specialist, dies at 96 of coronavirus complications

[ndlr]  Parution dans le Washington Post (accès limité depuis l’Europe) d’un article biographique intéressant de Harrison Smith sur Tran Ngoc Chau un personnage dont le destin est intimement lié à la déchirure nationale vietnamienne et qui a défrayé la chronique au Sud Viêt-Nam dans les années 1969-1970.

Tran Ngoc Chau, a Vietnamese soldier and politician who battled French colonial forces and later the communist Viet Cong, emerging as an influential American ally before being imprisoned in Saigon on treason charges, died June 17 at a hospital in the West Hills section of Los Angeles. He was 96.

His daughter Tamminh Tran Kapuscinska said the cause was complications from covid-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus.

Mr. Chau was part of a dwindling group of Vietnamese whose lives were dominated by three decades of conflict, including the resistance against Japanese occupation during World War II, the battle for independence against colonial France and the war that followed the country’s 1954 partition, which pitted the communist North against the U.S.-backed South.

Lire la suite / Read more : The Washington Post, 10/07/2020.

Image « à la une » : Tran Ngoc Chau dans les années cinquante à l’académie militaire de Dalat © DR

Survivor of Korean troops’ civilian killings in Vietnam files suit against Korean government [The Korea Herald]

[ndlr] Signalement d’un article de Ock Hyun-ju dans The Korea Herald (Corée du Sud) sur un des massacres de civils vietnamiens par l’armée sud-coréenne pendant la guerre du Viêt-Nam.

A Vietnamese woman filed a lawsuit against the Korean government on Tuesday over a massacre of civilians allegedly committed by South Korean troops during the Vietnam War, in the first of its kind filed some five decades after the atrocity.

The plaintiff is Nguyen Thi Thanh, 60, who lost family members at the hands of Korean troops in Phong Nhi in Quang Nam province in February 1968. She seeks 30,000,100 won ($24,400) in compensation and an apology from the Korean government.

According to her testimony, the incident took place when she was 8 years old, and she had to spend nearly a year in hospital after being shot in the stomach by Korean soldiers. In the village, some 74 people are believed to have been killed during the massacre.

Lire la suite : The Korea Herald, 21/04/2020. URL : http://m.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20200421000926

Photographie « à la une » : © Yonhap

Décès du général Lê Minh Dao (1933-2020)

[ndlr] Un des derniers généraux de la République du Viêt-Nam est décédé aux États-Unis à l’âge de 87 ans.

Héros de la bataille de Xuân Lôc en 1975, prisonnier en camp de rééducation pendant 17 ans après la chute de Saigon, il était revenu sur cette expérience carcérale dans un entretien à la BBC, programme vietnamien, il y a cinq ans.

Pour en savoir plus :

Mai Phi Long/Người Việt, « Thiếu Tướng Lê Minh Đảo, cựu tư lệnh SĐ 18 BB, qua đời ở tuổi 87 », Người Việt, 19/03/2020. Thiếu Tướng Lê Minh Đảo, cựu tư lệnh Sư Đoàn 18 Bộ Binh QLVNCH, vừa qua đời tại bệnh viện Hartford, Connecticut, lúc 1 giờ 45 phút chiều (giờ địa phương) hôm Thứ Năm, 19 Tháng Ba, hưởng thọ 87 tuổi.

Thiếu Tướng Lê Minh Đảo, Nguyên Tư Lệnh Sư Đoàn 18 Bộ Binh Từ Trần Tại Connecticut Hưởng Thọ 87 Tuổi, Việt Báo, 19/03/2020. Theo thông báo của Gia Đình Sư Đoàn 18 Bộ Binh, Thiếu Tướng Lê Minh Đảo, Nguyên Tư Lệnh Sư Đoàn 18 Bộ Binh của Quân Lực  VNCH đã từ trần tại tiểu bang Connecticut, Hoa Kỳ, vào lúc 1 giờ 45 phút chiều ngày 19 tháng 3 năm 2020, hưởng thọ 87 tuổi.

Illustration « à la une » : Thiếu Tướng Lê Minh Đảo trong lần tham dự hội ngộ Sư Đoàn 18 ở Little Saigon năm 2015. © Văn Lan/Người Việt.

« MÉMOIRES D’INDOCHINE » 2019 : SÉANCE 7

Année universitaire 2019-2020 / Master Asie Orientale Contemporaine (ASIOC) / Semestre 1

ENS de Lyon / Sciences Po Lyon

“Décoloniser l’histoire de l’Indochine”

★ ★ ★

Filles d’un groupement de Jeunesses de choc : transport de munitions pendant la guerre du Viêt-Nam © DR

Genre et pensée décoloniale

Cette séance discutera des possibilités d’une histoire genrée de la guerre du Viêt-Nam en s’appuyant sur l’expérience de guerres des Jeunesses de choc. Nous verrons dans quelle mesure ces groupes de jeunesses ont été déterminant dans la guerre de réunification.

Dans un second temps, à titre exploratoire, nous reviendrons sur l’émergence de la pensée décoloniale de son utilité pour étudier les catégories subalternes en Indochine pendant la période coloniale et postcoloniale à l’heure du Renouveau vietnamien (depuis décembre 1986). Que peuvent nous dire les études décoloniales, apparues en Amérique latine, sur le contexte asiatique et indochinois plus particulièrement ? La pensée « post-occidentale » constitue-t-elle un des moteurs de la recherche vietnamienne ?

Pour engager une discussion, chaque étudiant présentera un texte au choix parmi la liste des lectures requises.

Séance 7 : mercredi 13 novembre 2019 – salle de réunion de l’IAO

Lectures requises :

Azadeh Kian, « Introduction : genre et perspectives post/dé-coloniales », Les cahiers du CEDREF, 17 | 2010, mis en ligne le 01 janvier 2012. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/cedref/603

Bourguignon ClaudeColin Philippe, « De l’universel au pluriversel. Enjeux et défis du paradigme décolonial », Raison présente, 2016/3 (N° 199), p. 99-108. URL : https://www.cairn.info/revue-raison-presente-2016-3-page-99.htm

Phuong Bui Tran, « Souvenirs de collégiennes vietnamiennes », Clio. Femmes, Genre, Histoire, 33 | 2011, mis en ligne le 01 mai 2013. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/clio/10078

Capucine Boidin, « Études décoloniales et postcoloniales dans les débats français », Cahiers des Amériques latines, 62 | 2009, mis en ligne le 31 janvier 2013. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/cal/1620

Hurtado López Fátima, « Universalisme ou pluriversalisme ? Les apports de la philosophie latino-américaine », Tumultes, 2017/1 (n° 48), p. 39-50. URL : https://www.cairn.info/revue-tumultes-2017-1-page-39.htm

Illustration « à la une » : Ouvrage intitulé La question des femmes dans notre pays compilant les écrits de l’écrivaine, activiste sociale et journaliste d’avant-garde Dam Phuong (1881-1947).

Studying Republican Vietnam: Issues, Challenges, and Prospects – October 14-15, 2019

Programme en ligne d’un important colloque organisé par Tuong Vu à l’Université d’Oregon aux Etats-Unis. Argumentaire et programme (téléchargeable) ci-dessous.

Scholarly interest in the Republic of Vietnam (RVN) has surged in the last decade. The conventional wisdom in Western scholarship until recently was closely in line with communist propaganda, either ignoring the RVN or portraying it as an American creation in the US global struggle against communism. In this narrative, the government led by Ho Chi Minh and his successors represented the true aspirations of most Vietnamese, while the RVN had little domestic legitimacy. The conflict in Vietnam during 1955-1975 was less a civil war than an American war against the Vietnamese nation as a whole.

The recently expanding interest in Republican Vietnam stems from a combination of newly available sources since the late 1990s and the emergence of a younger generation of historians less shackled by the biases of the previous generation. The new scholarship rejects the old binary of communists-as-patriots versus anticommunists-as-collaborators. Communism is treated as merely one of many political tendencies in modern Vietnam and had no more inherent legitimacy than its rivals. Republican, monarchist and anticommunist ideologies and organizations are given full agency as agents of history who contributed to the evolution of contemporary Vietnam despite their eventual defeat at the hands of the communists. In the new scholarship, the conflicts between and within North and South Vietnam were at the core civil wars whose origins can be traced back to the 1920s’ clashes in colonial Vietnam among republican, communist, monarchist and other ideas.

South Vietnamese Elections in 1967 © DR

The events that transpired since 1975 left behind legacies as complicated as the war itself. After its military victory, the communist regime sought to eradicate any traces of the RVN by imprisoning its former personnel, nationalizing its capitalist economy, and suppressing its lively culture and robust civil society. Unwilling or unable to bear the hardship, persecution, and communist dictatorship, hundreds of thousands fled Vietnam, creating the largest exodus in the country’s history. Among what the diaspora carried with it to foreign shores were certain Republican values, memories of the RVN, and the trauma of life under communism. Among South Vietnamese who stayed behind, the legacies persisted and re-emerged in various aspects when the regime was forced to accept market reform in the late 1980s.

Republican Vietnam is a broad subject, extending through the 20th century and beyond. The issues range from the spread of Republican ideas to French Indochina at the turn of the century to the memories of the RVN among the diaspora and the resurgence of Republican values in Vietnam today, and everything in between.

Source : Center for Asian and Pacific Studies – Oregon University

Thomas Cooper : Bombing Missions of the Vietnam War

Mis en ligne en 2017, ce récit visuel, basé sur des sources américaines déclassifiées en 2016, donne une vision précise des bombardements pendant la guerre du Viêt-Nam entre 1965 et 1973.

Bombing Missions of the Vietnam War

A visual record of the largest aerial bombardment in history

Between 1965 and 1975, the United States and its allies dropped more than 7.5 million tons of bombs on Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia—double the amount dropped on Europe and Asia during World War II. Pound for pound, it remains the largest aerial bombardment in human history.

The bombardment of North Vietnam and its neighbors began shortly after the Gulf of Tonkin incident in August 1964, and continued until the last American was airlifted out of Saigon over a decade later. All told, the U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps together conducted at least 2.8 millioncombat missions against ground targets, while the air forces of South Vietnam, Laos, Australia, and South Korea added an additional 360,000 missions to the tally.

In late 2016, the United States Department of Defense publicly released records of almost every bombing and ground-attack mission flown during the Vietnam War. (Ground-attack missions are strikes against ground targets using using rockets, missiles, cannons, and other non-bomb ordnance.) The data, meticulously digitized from the aircrews’ original after-action reports, allows us to visually reconstruct the air campaign, shedding new light on its sheer scale, intensity, and complexity. […]

Thomas Cooper is a cartographer and product engineer on the Story Maps team; a displaced Oregonian; a forager of cultural sustenance; a fair-weather motorcyclist; and a onetime expert on Kyrgyz supermarkets.

Accès au récit visuel : https://storymaps.esri.com/stories/2017/vietnam-bombing/index.html

Nguyen Ngoc Chau : Viêt Nam. L’Histoire Politique des Deux Guerres 1858-1954 et 1945-1975 [parution]

Nguyen Ngoc Chau, ingénieur, propose un récit historique rappelant les faits politiques majeurs du Viêt-Nam au XXe siècle. Présentation de l’éditeur.

Beaucoup de livres ont été écrits sur la guerre pour l’indépendance et la guerre entre nationalistes et communistes au Việt Nam durant le siècle dernier.

Mais sait-on que le prince Cảnh, celui qui devait succéder à l’empereur Gia Long, à son retour de France avec l’évêque d’Adran Pierre Pigneau de Béhaine en 1789, refusa de se prosterner devant l’autel de ses ancêtres et se convertit en cachette au catholicisme ?

Que Napoléon III accepta d’abord de restituer les trois provinces orientales pour lesquelles Phan Thanh Giản était venu négocier le rachat à Paris le 10 septembre 1863, et que la mission Aubaret signa, le 15 juillet 1864 à Huế, un traité sur cette rétrocession ?

Que Ngô Đình Diệm n’était pas seul en lice pour le poste de Premier ministre de l’État du Việt Nam après les accords de Genève en 1954 ?

Pour l’auteur, ce livre a l’intérêt de permettre de mieux comprendre que le présent et le futur d’un pays ne se construisent pas sans douleurs ni larmes.

Source : Nombre7 éditions