Archives par mot-clé : Champa

Billy Noseworthy : a few words to introduce

[ndlr] Présentation du site de recherche dédié aux études sur le Champa. Billet publié avec l’aimable autorisation de son auteur.

chamstudies[Site en maintenance, 22/11/2016] presentation website is committed to the preservation and promotion of the cultural values of the Champa civilization, and serves as a space for the dissemination of research in the field of Cham studies. With this in mind, actively circulates collections of scholarly resources and short essays, as well as information pertaining to conferences and scholarships. is the brainchild of Isvan Champa (MA Hawai’i, current PhD student at the University of Queensland).

Isvan had been running a Vietnamese academic site « Young Anthropologists » after he completed his Masters at Hawai’I and returned to Vietnam to begin a significant body of fieldwork on Austronesian ethnic minorities. When I say significant, I mean that his mastery of languages quickly jumped from English, Vietnamese and Cham, to the inclusion of four others: Raglai, Churu, Ede and Jarai.

When I first met Isvan we had shared the idea of starting a new academic journal that would address the need of bringing Cham studies to readership who were themselves Cham in Vietnam. Such a journal did not exist at the time. There was the literary serial Tagalauand the almost entirely historical-studies focused Champaka. Neither was focused on bringing together Champa and Cham studies into a single multidisciplinary project, a la Journal of Vietnamese Studies, however, which we upheld as a model. In 2012 « Young Anthropologists » was going strong and I joined the founding editorial board of TapukBhapRohDuahIlimo Cam (Journal of Cham Studies) in 2012.

TapukBhapRohDuahIlimo Cam is primarily an academic journal, published in Vietnamese, in Vietnam, although the journal has included English and Japanese abstracts of the articles published. It is produced by the Cham-UNESCO research center in Ho Chi Minh City, and bridges the gap between the popular scholarly output of the Cham community and Vietnamese language academic publishing. Primarily headed by the efforts of Sakaya (Dr. Truong Van Mon), the center also published a Cham-Vietnamese-English 16,000-word dictionary in 2014, which I was one among a number of co-authors on. Later in 2014, Dr. Toshihiko Shine & Sakaya published a Japanese version of the same dictionary.

As Tagalau, TapukBhapRohDuahIlimo Cam and Champakawere already covering the necessary journal publication markets for Champa and Cham studies, Isvan saw a new problem, however. There were still many scholars of Champa and the Cham who were working outside of Vietnam who weren’t using the works of those inside, and vice versa. The main problem was access. Print materials could be brought in and out, but shipping and transportation were tedious means of exchanging knowledge. was founded to mitigate that problem in 2015.

On the initial board of Isvan invited myself and Julie T. Underhill, as we were graduate students and researchers covering substantially different topics in the field. We then invited Dr. Mohammend Bin Abdul Effendy (NUS, Singapore) and Dave Paulson (PhD, candidate, Temple) to join us. Currently the website features presentations in Vietnamese, Malay, English of new articles, links to downloadable and more difficult to find resources, announcements for scholarships, profiles of researchers and more. We have particularly been focusing on circulating announcements that will allow other students and young researchers from Vietnam to study abroad. When Isvan was admitted to the University of Queensland this was a major break for all of us, and we hope that more students will be able to bridge the research gap by working across borders in the Americas, Europe and the Pacific, as well as Vietnam, Cambodia and Malaysia.

The main features of the website, as it stands, are collections of your standards area of Art and Literature, Culture, History, Language, and Religion. Although we also have a substantial media collection, and a worthwhile « Network » section that will give you a sense of the field of Cham Studies. While there are many websites that feature articles on the Cham, ours is the only one that hosts a substantive amount of English, Vietnamese, Cham and Malay language material. We welcome French and Cambodian material as well, and have been working with many Cham studies scholars in Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, France, Japan and the United States to expand our collections.

Should you have any questions, OR wish to contribute something, please don’t hesitate to contact:

billynoseworthyBilly Noseworthy, grad student, University of Wisconsin-Madison.


Image « à la une » : La tour Cham Thap Poshaknu Cham près de Mũi Né – Wikipédia 2005

Andrew Hardy: The Barefoot Anthropologist – The Highlands of Champa and Vietnam in the Words of Jacques Dournes

[ndlr] Parution d’un nouvel ouvrage de notre collègue Andrew Hardy, chercheur à l’EFEO.

“On the trails you go barefoot. I’m still barefoot! I wonder how one can stuff one’s feet into shoes that hurt so much. Feet are like hands, they start narrow and end broad. And shoes, they’re quite the opposite, they start broad and end narrow. So, your foot in a shoe—it’s completely absurd!” —Jacques Dournes, speaking of the forest trails of Vietnam’s Central Highlands

French anthropologist Jacques Dournes lived in Vietnam for twenty-five years, from 1946 to 1970, studying the culture of the Jarai and other highland ethnic groups. He became a renowned ethnographer and the Jarai people became his lifelong passion.

In part 1 of this study, Andrew Hardy explores Dournes’s challenging monograph Pötao, une théorie de pouvoir chez les Indochinois jörai and his views on the role of the highlanders in ancient Champa. In part 2, Dournes speaks animatedly with the author about the Jarai, his feelings about culture and economics, his understanding of Vietnam’s history, and his personal experience of living in the Central Highlands.



Andrew Hardy works at the École Française d’Extrême-Orient (EFEO), specializing on the history of Vietnam. He is the author of Red Hills: Migrants and the State in the Highlands of Vietnam (2003).

Source : Silkworm Books

Thérèse Guyot-Becker : La servitude pour dette au Campa du sud au XVIIIe siècle [thèse]

[ndlr] Message d’Oscar Salemink à VSG que nous publions avec son aimable autorisation.

Please join me in congratulating Dr. Thérèse Guyot-Becker with the successful defense of her doctoral thesis ’La servitude pour dette au Campa du sud au XVIIIe siècle: Étude des archives légales du « Panduranga-Campa » de la Société Asiatique de Paris’ [Serfdom for debt in 18th Centyury southern Champa : A study of the legal archives of Panduranga-Champa at the Société Asiatique de Paris]. Ms. Guyot defended at the École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE) of the Sorbonne in Paris.

The dissertation constitutes a meticulous and detailed empirical study of a collection of legal documents – mostly contracts about transactions – held at the Société Asiatique in Paris. The provenance of the collection is most likely the ‘trésor des roi chams’ described by Durand and Parmentier (1905). It consists of legal documents in three languages: Cham, Hán, and Hán-Nôm; the smaller section of documents in Hán and Hán-Nôm have been translated into modern Vietnamese by Vietnamese collaborators of Ms. Guyot, who translated the Cham language records which constitute the vast majority of the collection. By making this collection available for scholarship Ms Guyot has made an important contribution to our knowledge of Cham society in the 18th Century, under the tutelage of the Nguyễn Lords.

A Champa manuscript recounting the social culture of the Cham community of the early 18th century © Wikipedia
A Champa manuscript recounting the social culture of the Cham community of the early 18th century © 2009 Wikipedia / Gryffindor

The thesis is divided up in five chapters. The first chapter contains a description of the collection; of the various types of legal documents; of the styles in which they were written up; and of the various actors involved in the transaction. Not much else is known about 18th Century Cham  society, so the description of the monetary value of the transactions, of the places mentioned and especially of the dates of the contracts required a painstaking, pioneering labor on the part of Ms. Guyot who devised a system by which the Cham dates could be rendered in the Gregorian calendar. From this chapter it is clear that it took an enormous effort to make the collection accessible for scholarly description and analysis.

The subsequent four chapters engage the collection of legal documents from different vantage points. The methodological strategy of Ms Guyot is to see the collection as a quantifiable database which enables her to enumerate and calculate specific aspects, detect patterns and correspondences, and make these insights visible in a large number of tables (‘tableaux’) and charts (‘grafiques’). The author convincingly isolates and describes the terms of her statistical calculations, which is oftentimes a problem in quantitative research.

Chapter II describes the documents as sales documents, mostly concerning the selling of persons, either as definitive sale or as redeemable sale. It calculates the (monetary) value of the transactions and the average value of individual persons. And it compares the transactions involving three categories of people: villagers; notables and dignitaries; and the Po Taray (Cham princes).

Chapter III describes loans and debts – which are usually the precursor for the sale of persons. It describes loans with and without interest, and loans with collateral. It describes the various interest rates and types of collateral – oftentimes persons – and their distribution over various types of loans and their actors. And finally, it distinguishes again the transactions according to the category of the contractors – villagers, notables and dignitaries.

Chapter IV discusses the various types of redemption of debts, which might involve donations by third parties. It discusses legal procedures and legal cases when the pay-back was defaulted. And finally it discusses the various types and registers of redemption in Cham society of the time.

The final Chapter V engages the vernacular category of the person as property – halun – and asks the question whether halun constitute slaves or servants. It distinguishes between various categories of halun according to the reasons for their status as property: given up by others (‘aliénés’); endebted; or at fault in juridical terms. The chapter reviews the various rights and responsibilities of both masters and halun, and establishes that halun are not absolute property – i.e. reduced to objects – but remain subjects with the legal right to complain and seek justice. Finally, the chapter distinguishes between various types of halun, in the sense of their attachment to various types of ‘masters’ – e.g. villagers, notables, the prince, temples.

In the absence of much other knowledge of southern Cham society at the time, Dr Guyot-Becker made the philological choice to narrowly focus on this collection of Cham legal documents and make those documents accessible to contemporary scholarship, which in itself constitutes a veritable monk’s labor. That choice was presented as an effort to let herself be guided by the sources only, rather than by comparative insights derived from other sources and contexts. This choice may have prevented her from filling in the lines between the dots and offering a more coherent historical narrative, which hopefully will be developed in the time to come.

Ms Guyot-Becker’s thesis received the highest distinction from the jury (consisting of Philippe Papin [supervisor], Andrew Hardy, Eric Bourdonneau, and myself). The world has another scholar fluent in ancient Cham!

Oscar Salemink (11/02/2014)

P.-E. Bachelet : Cartographies et représentations géographiques du Campā, des premiers siècles de l’ère chrétienne au milieu du XIXe siècle

Pierre-Emmanuel Bachelet a soutenu le lundi 8 juillet 2013 son mémoire de Master 2 en Histoire moderne et contemporaine à l’ENS de Lyon. Mémoire dirigé par Jean-Pascal Bassino (Professeur, Université de Grenoble) et François Guillemot (IR CNRS, IAO).

Reposant sur l’étude rigoureuse d’un corpus de près de 70 cartes anciennes de multiples provenances (européennes, chinoises, vietnamiennes, japonaises ou arabes), P.-E. Bachelet propose une approche du territoire cam par le ciel et une vue de la mer. Ce Champa « vu du ciel et de la mer » offre une image inédite de la représentation spatiale (par les étrangers) de ce royaume disparu et de son importance à travers les siècles. En faisant appel aux documents cartographiques et géographiques (à travers les données des routiers), cette étude historique, entreprise sur la longue durée, est une belle contribution aux études cam et ouvre des perspectives de recherche sur les réseaux commerciaux, la représentation de l’autre et la circulation des idées en Asie du Sud-Est.

Détail du Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (坤輿萬國全圖). Reproduction japonaise, circa 1605
Détail du Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (坤輿萬國全圖). Reproduction japonaise, circa 1605

Cartographies et représentations géographiques du Campā, des premiers siècles de l’ère chrétienne au milieu du XIXe siècle

Un aperçu de la géographie du royaume cam d’après les géographes et les navigateurs asiatiques, musulmans et européens.

Pierre-Emmanuel Bachelet, ENS de Lyon


Cette étude s’intéresse à la place qu’occupe le Campā dans la cartographie européenne, musulmane et asiatique et dans les textes qui ont trait à sa géographie. Il tente d’apporter un éclairage différent, à travers un nouveau type de sources, sur l’importance du royaume cam dans les réseaux commerciaux d’Asie du Sud-Est et sur la connaissance qu’en ont les géographes et navigateurs. Les cartographies chinoise, japonaise et vietnamienne y sont abordées : ces cartes mettent l’accent sur la conception symbolique que les Chinois ou les Japonais ont du monde, ou encore sur les revendications politiques et territoriales des Chinois et Vietnamiens en Asie du Sud-Est. Les cartographes musulmans et européens tentent quand à eux de donner une image plus réaliste de ces contrées éloignées, en intégrant à leurs travaux des informations issues des auteurs médiévaux (Marco Polo…), de Ptolémée et bien entendu des navigateurs qui explorent les côtes cam à partir du XVIe siècle. Dans tous les cas on assiste à une standardisation autour de critères cartographiques occidentaux, du XVIIe au XIXe siècle : le Campā occupe une place de plus en plus réduite dans ces cartes, ce qui est peu étonnant vu les amputations territoriales subies au long de ces périodes. Récits de voyage, routiers, récits de missionnaires et encyclopédies permettent de compléter cet aperçu en intégrant des descriptions des côtes, des coordonnées et d’autres détails sur la géographie du royaume cam.

P.-E. Bachelet a travaillé en M1 sur l’historiographie du Campā et sur les sources européennes relatives à l’activité commerciale, la situation politique et la société cam. Il a consacré son M2 à la place du Campā dans la cartographie et projette de travailler en thèse sur les relations entre le Campā/le Sud Viêt Nam et le Japon aux XVIe et XVIIe siècles.