Archives de catégorie : Signalements

Lien-Hang Nguyen : Who Called the Shots in Hanoi?

[ndlr] Le Viêt-Nam en guerre pendant l’année 1967 : une vue de Hanoi. Signalons cet excellent article de l’historienne Lien-Hang Nguyen.

As any account of combat in the Vietnam War will tell you, America fought an “elusive enemy”: guerrillas who would strike and then disappear; battalion commanders who refused to engage in open battles. But there’s more to the cliché than most people realize. Even by 1967, America’s military, intelligence and civilian leaders had no real idea who was actually calling the shots in Hanoi.

To some extent, this is what the North wanted — the impression that decisions were made collectively, albeit under the gentle guiding hand of President Ho Chi Minh. But the American confusion also, inadvertently, reflected the messy, factionalized reality of North Vietnamese politics, one that historians are only now coming to grasp. Thanks to the slow if capricious process of historical declassification, the publications of renegade memoirs and histories, the dissemination of “open letters” by disgruntled former leaders, and the careful and painstaking research and analysis by Vietnam specialists, we now have a better understanding of who was on top in Hanoi and what battles he waged to get there.

Lire la suite / Read more : The New York Times, The Opinion Pages, 14/02/2017.

Lien-Hang Nguyen is a professor of history at Columbia and the author of the forthcoming “Tet 1968: The Battles That Changed the Vietnam War and the Global Cold War.”

Image « à la une » ; Ho Chi Minh, le président de la RDVN et Le Duan, le secrétaire général du Parti des Travailleurs du Viêt-Nam [futur PCV] à Hanoi.

Christopher Goscha : 1er septembre 1966 – Le discours de Phnom Penh

[ndlr] Article à lire sur le site de l’auteur. Christopher Goscha est Professeur agrégé au département d’histoire à l’université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM). Il a récemment publié une « nouvelle histoire du Viêt-Nam ».

En visite au Cambodge, De Gaulle défie les Américains en proclamant « le droit des peuples à disposer d’eux-mêmes ». Rendue possible par la fin de la guerre d’Algérie, cette révolution diplomatique est le fruit d’une lente maturation, qui le voit rompre avec une politique étrangère séculaire braquée sur l’empire. Mais il n’ira pas jusqu’à abandonner les possessions françaises dans le Pacifique : elles sont trop nécessaires à la dissuasion nucléaire et à l’indépendance qu’il revendique en pleine guerre froide.

Lire l’article : 1er septembre 1966 : Le Discours de Phnom Penh (PDF) in L’histoire de France vue d’ailleurs, Paris, Les Arènes, 2016, pp. 556-569.

Kỷ Niệm lần thứ 87 Tổng Khởi Nghĩa của VNQDĐ

[ndlr] Il y a 87 ans, le Parti National du Viêt-Nam (VNQDD) lançait une insurrection générale contre le pouvoir colonial. Rappel de ces événements et de la répression qui en suivit. Articles publiés sur le site de ce Parti, exilé et interdit depuis 1975 en RSVN.

L’insurrection de Yen Bai de février 1930

Ngày 10/02/1930, Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng đứng lên làm cuộc Tổng Khởi Nghĩa đánh đuổi thực dân Pháp dành độc lập cho Dân Tộc. Đây là cuộc Tổng Khởi Nghĩa lịch sử đã đưa một đảng chính trị đầu tiên vào cửa chính của lịch sử mở màng cho công cuộc đấu tranh vì độc lập dân tộc, vì tự do dân chủ và vì hạnh phúc toàn dân. Cuộc Tổng Khởi Nghĩa thất bại, nhưng đã lưu lại tấm gương yêu nước sáng ngời cho bao thế hệ đời sau noi gương chiến đấu để bảo vệ và xây dựng tổ quốc. Nhân kỷ niệm ngày Tổng Khởi Nghĩa lần thứ 85 của VNQDĐ, chúng tôi ghi lại diễn tiến cuộc Tổng Khởi Nghĩa làm rung chuyển chế độ thực dân Pháp và mở đầu cuộc cách mạnh dân quyền tự do cho dân tộc Việt Nam.

Lire la suite : VQ2, « Kỷ Niệm lần thứ 87 Tổng Khởi Nghĩa của VNQDĐ« , 09/02/2017.

Voir aussi sur le site Viet Quoc :

Sophie Quinn-Judge : The Third Force in the Vietnam War: The Elusive Search for Peace 1954-75 [parution]

[ndlr] Avis de parution d’une nouvelle étude l’historienne Sophie Quinn-Judge. Présentation de l’éditeur.

It was the conflict that shocked America and the world, but the struggle for peace is central to the history of the Vietnam War. Rejecting the idea that war between Hanoi and the US was inevitable, the author traces North Vietnam’s programs for a peaceful reunification of their nation from the 1954 Geneva negotiations up to the final collapse of the Saigon government in 1975. She also examines the ways that groups and personalities in South Vietnam responded by crafting their own peace proposals, in the hope that the Vietnamese people could solve their disagreements by engaging in talks without outside interference. While most of the writing on peacemaking during the Vietnam War concerns high-level international diplomacy, Sophie Quinn-Judge reminds us of the courageous efforts of southern Vietnamese, including Buddhists, Catholics, students and citizens, to escape the unprecedented destruction that the US war brought to their people. The author contends that US policymakers showed little regard for the attitudes of the South Vietnamese population when they took over the war effort in 1964 and sent in their own troops to fight it in 1965.

A unique contribution of this study is the interweaving of developments in South Vietnamese politics with changes in the balance of power in Hanoi; both of the Vietnamese combatants are shown to evolve towards greater rigidity as the war progresses, while the US grows increasingly committed to President Thieu in Saigon, after the election of Richard Nixon. Not even the signing of the 1973 Paris Peace Agreement could blunt US support for Thieu and his obstruction of the peace process. The result was a difficult peace in 1975, achieved by military might rather than reconciliation, and a new realization of the limits of American foreign policy.

Sophie Quinn-Judge is the Associate Director of the Centre for Vietnamese History at Temple University. She was for many years a South East Asia correspondent for the Far Eastern Economic Review and for The Guardian. One of the foremost scholars of the Vietnam War, she taught for many years at the LSE and SOAS.

Ref. : Quinn-Judge, Sophie, The Third Force in the Vietnam War: The Elusive Search for Peace 1954-75, London, I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd, 2017, 336 p. ISBN: 9781784535971

Source : I.B.Tauris

 

Tzvetan Todorov, essayiste et historien des idées, est mort

[ndlr] Triste disparition d’un grand chercheur dont les travaux ont accompagné le séminaire Mémoires d’Indochine.

Tzvetan Todorov, essayiste et historien des idées, est mort

Français d’origine bulgare, né à Sofia en 1939, il était un théoricien de la littérature et a notamment travaillé sur le rapport des Occidentaux à l’altérité et sur l’expérience totalitaire.

L’essayiste et historien des idées Tzvetan Todorov est mort à 77 ans, a-t-on appris mardi 7 février. « Infinie tristesse d’apprendre la mort de Tzvetan Todorov, penseur de la liberté », a réagi Sandrine Tolotti, ex-rédactrice en chef du bimestriel littéraire Books, dont M. Todorov était membre du comité éditorial.

Lire la suite : Le Monde, 07/02/2017.

Pour en savoir plus :

  • Le philosophe et historien Tzvetan Todorov est mort, L’Express, 07/02/2017. L’essayiste franco-bulgare est décédé à 77 ans. Tzvetan Todorov avait quitté la Bulgarie dans les années 60 afin d’échapper au communisme. Il a notamment travaillé sur la pensée humaniste et sur le totalitarisme.
  • Disparition d’un humaniste : Tzvetan Todorov, Les Inrocks, 07/02/2017. Le philosophe et historien des idées Tzvetan Todorov est mort à l’âge de 77 ans. De la théorie poétique à la critique politique de son temps et à l’éloge des insoumis, il ne cessa de déployer une pensée profondément humaniste.
  • L’essayiste Tzvetan Todorov est mort, Télérama, 07/02/2017. […] Auteur de plus d’une quarantaine d’essais, il avait notamment publié Face à l’extrême, la vie morale dans les camps de concentration (1994),  La Vie commune, réflexion sur la nature sociale de l’homme (1995), Mémoire du mal, tentation du bien (2001), Les Ennemis intimes de la démocratie (2012). Son dernier ouvrage, Insoumis, était paru à l’automne 2016.
  • Agnès Bozon-Verduraz, Tzvetan Todorov, ou la lucidité de l’exilé, Télérama, 07/02/2017. L’intellectuel est mort le mardi 7 février à Paris à l’âge de 77 ans. Touche-à-tout des sciences humaines, cet enfant de Bulgarie était aussi dur avec la dictature qu’il était exigeant de la démocratie. Nous republions un entretien datant de 1996, paru à l’occasion de la sortie de son livre “L’Homme dépaysé”. Et plus de vingt ans après, ses paroles sonnent toujours aussi juste.
  • David Caviglioli et Grégoire Leménager, Mort de Tzvetan Todorov, le fantastique humaniste, BibliObs, 07/02/2017. Dans la vie intellectuelle française, Tzvetan Todorov, mort dans la nuit du 6 au 7 février à l’âge de 77 ans, a occupé une place singulière. On n’a jamais pu le rattacher à un camp. Il ne figure pas dans le panthéon de la French Theory. Très anti-communiste, notamment à cause de son parcours personnel, il a fait partie du moment antitotalitaire, sans devenir un «nouveau philosophe».

Image « à la une » : © 1996 ULF ANDERSEN / Aurimages / AFP

Christopher Goscha : The 30-Years War in Vietnam

[ndlr] Signalement d’un article en ligne de notre collègue Christopher Goscha, professeur à l’UQAM. Rubrique : Vietnam ’67/// Historians, veterans and journalists recall 1967 in Vietnam, a year that changed the war and changed America.

vietnam67It should go without saying that the Vietnam War is remembered by different people in very different ways. Most Americans remember it as a war fought between 1965 and 1975 that bogged down their military in a struggle to prevent the Communists from marching into Southeast Asia, deeply dividing Americans as it did. The French remember their loss there as a decade-long conflict, fought from 1945 to 1954, when they tried to hold on to the Asian pearl of their colonial empire until losing it in a place called Dien Bien Phu.

The Vietnamese, in contrast, see the war as a national liberation struggle, or as a civil conflict, depending on which side they were on, ending in victory in 1975 for one side and tragedy for the other. For the Vietnamese, it was above all a 30-year conflict transforming direct and indirect forms of fighting into a brutal conflagration, one that would end up claiming over three million Vietnamese lives.

The point is not that one perspective is better or more accurate than the other. What’s important, rather, is to understand how the colonial war, the civil war and the Cold War intertwined to produce such a deadly conflagration by 1967.

Lire la suite : The New York Times, 07/02/2017.

Image « à la une » : Prise du PC-GONO par les soldats Vietminh de la division 316 dans la soirée du 7 mai 1954. © AFP/VNA

Tran Van Thuy and Le Thanh Dung : The Memoir of a Vietnamese Filmmaker in War and Peace [parution]

[ndlr] Traduction en anglais des mémoires du cinéaste Tran Van Thuy. Présentation de l’éditeur.

In Whose Eyes

The Memoir of a Vietnamese Filmmaker in War and Peace
A Vietnamese perspective on the Vietnam war and its legacies
tranvanthuy_inwhoseeyes

Trân Van Thuy is a celebrated Vietnamese filmmaker of more than twenty award-winning documentaries. A cameraman for the People’s Army of Vietnam during the Vietnam War, he went on to achieve international fame as the director of films that address the human costs of the war and its aftermath.

Thuy’s memoir, when published in Vietnam in 2013, immediately sold out. In this translation, English-language readers are now able to learn in rich detail about the life and work of this preeminent artist. Written in a gentle and charming style, the memoir is filled with reflections on war, peace, history, freedom of expression, and filmmaking. Thuy also offers a firsthand account of the war in Vietnam and its aftermath from a Vietnamese perspective, adding a dimension rarely encountered in English-language literature.

Source : University of Massachusetts Amherst

Joël Pham : Travailleurs indochinois – Non à une histoire travestie

[ndlr] A lire sur le site Travailleurs indochinois le billet d’humeur de Joël Pham sur les affabulations médiatiques autour de cette question historique.

Que n’a-t-on pas entendu depuis quelques années quand il était question de la « présentation générale » de l’histoire des travailleurs indochinois de la seconde guerre mondiale. « Histoire cachée », «histoire dissimulée », « histoire enfouie », « histoire méconnue », « histoire occultée », etc… toutes ces formulations incluant, circonstance aggravante dans l’esprit de leurs auteurs, ce sous-entendu définitif… par la France.

Lire la suite : Travailleurs indochinois [pdf en ligne]

Ben Kiernan : Viet Nam – A History from Earliest Times to the Present

[ndlr] Nouvel ouvrage sur l’histoire du Viêt-Nam des origines à nos jours dans sa diversité culturelle et ethnique. Rédigé par Ben Kiernan, spécialiste du Cambodge contemporain. Présentation de l’éditeur.

For many Westerners, the name Vietnam evokes images of a bloody televised American war that generated a firestorm of protest and brought conflict into their living rooms. In his sweeping account, Ben Kiernan broadens this vision by narrating the rich history of the peoples who have inhabited the land now known as Viet Nam over the past three thousand years.

Despite the tragedies of the American-Vietnamese conflict, Viet Nam has always been much more than a war. Its long history been characterized by the frequent rise and fall of different political formations, from ancient chiefdoms to imperial provinces, from independent kingdoms to divided regions, civil wars, French colonies, and modern republics. In addition to dramatic political transformations, the region has been shaped by its environment, changing climate, and the critical importance of water, with rivers, deltas, and a long coastline facilitating agricultural patterns, trade, and communications.

Kiernan weaves together the many narrative strands of Viet Nam’s multi-ethnic populations, including the Chams, Khmers, and Vietnamese, and its multi-religious heritage, from local spirit cults to Buddhism, Confucianism, and Catholicism. He emphasizes the peoples’ interactions over the millennia with foreigners, particularly their neighbors in China and Southeast Asia, in engagements ranging from military conflict to linguistic and cultural influences. He sets the tumultuous modern period–marked by French and Japanese occupation, anticolonial nationalism, the American-Vietnamese war, and communist victory–against the continuities evident in the deeper history of the people’s relationships with the lands where they have lived. In contemporary times, he explores this one-party state’s transformation into a global trading nation, the country’s tense diplomatic relationship with China and developing partnership with the United States in maintaining Southeast Asia’s regional security, and its uncertain prospects for democracy.

Written by a leading scholar of Southeast Asia, Viet Nam presents an authoritative history of an ancient land.

Ben Kiernan is the A. Whitney Griswold Professor of History and Professor of International and Area Studies at Yale University, where he founded the Cambodian Genocide Program and the Genocide Studies Program. He is the author of numerous books including The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-1979 and Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur.

Table of contents

Abbreviations
Note on Spelling
Preface

Introduction

Part I: Chiefdoms
Ch. 1 Water, Rice, and Bronze: Prehistoric Viet Nam

Part II: Provinces
Ch. 2 Calming the Waves: Imperial Conquest and Indigenization, 221 BCE-540 CE
Ch. 3 Mountains and Rivers of the South: Annam and its Neighbors, 6th-10th Centuries

Part III: Kingdoms
Ch. 4 « Rice from the Sky »: Assembling the Spirits of Dai Viet, 940-1340
Ch. 5 Smooth-Flowing Waters of Government: The Triumph of Confucianism, 1340-1570

Part IV: Regions
Ch. 6 Contending Shogunates: Inner and Outer Regions, 1570-1770
Ch. 7 Alternative Unifications: Rebellion and Restoration, 1771-1859

Part V: Colonies
Ch. 8 « World Trends » and French Conquest, 1860-1920
Ch. 9 Writing and Revolution from Colonialism to Independence, 1920-1954

Part VI: Republics
Ch. 10 The American-Vietnamese War, 1954-1975
Ch. 11 The Making of Contemporary Viet Nam, 1975-2015

Epilogue

Notes
Index

Source : Oxford University Press

 

Sébastien Ledoux : « La mémoire, mauvais objet de l’historien ? »

[ndlr] Signalement d’un article de Sébastien Ledoux, chercheur au Centre d’histoire sociale du XXe siècle (CNRS) qui rejoint les préoccupations du séminaire.

Réf. : Ledoux, Sébastien, « La mémoire, mauvais objet de l’historien ? », Vingtième siècle. Revue d’histoire, n° 133, janvier-mars 2017, pp. 113-128.

Née à la fin des années 1970 et remobilisée dans les années 2000, l’opposition entre histoire et mémoire mérite d’être reconsidérée. Plusieurs travaux récents ont montré le potentiel d’une compréhension fine des frontières poreuses entre les deux concepts. Les réflexions de Paul Ricoeur sur l’écriture de l’histoire et sur la mémoire devraient permettre d’approfondir ces recherches d’une grande fécondité.

Lire la suite : Vingtième Siècle, Revue d’histoire [n° 133, janvier-mars 2017, à paraître]

vingtiemesiecle133_2017

Signalons dans ce même numéro notre recension longue de l’ouvrage photographique Regards sur l’Indochine par Hugues Tertrais, pp. 167-170 (Rubrique « Images, lettres et sons »).