Archives par mot-clé : Hmong

Séminaire “Mémoires d’Indochine” 2016 : Séance 6

Année universitaire 2016-2017 / Master Asie Orientale Contemporaine (ASIOC) / Semestre 1

ENS de Lyon / Sciences Po Lyon

Mémoires d’Indochine :

Imaginaires nationaux :

de l’empire colonial aux états-nations d’aujourd’hui

Jeune Hmong de Sapa © 1996 FG

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Marges, ethnies minoritaires et frontières

Séance 6 : mardi 15 novembre 2016 (F111)

Il a été beaucoup question dans ce séminaire de l’espace indochinois, de sa géographie (physique, humaine et culturelle), de ses marges, de sa composition ethnique ou de ses frontières. Cette séance poursuivra l’investigation en rappelant les principales révoltes montagnardes qui ont secoué l’espace transnational indochinois de la fin du XIXe siècle jusqu’à une période récente pour tenter de saisir les multiples revendications identitaires qui entendent s’inscrire dans la durée.

Source mobilisée :

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Exposés oraux

Espace indochinois colonial et post-colonial, imaginaire national et enchevêtrement des guerres :

  • anderson_limaginairenational_pocheAnderson, Benedict, L’imaginaire national. Réflexions sur l’origine et l’essor du nationalisme, Paris, La Découverte / Poche, 2006.

Exposé de Léa Debraux

Présentation de l’éditeur : La Découverte

  • LePasséDesKhmers_couv.Abdoul-Carime, Nasir / Mikaelian, Grégory et Thach, Joseph (eds.), Le passé des Khmers. Langue, textes, rites, Berne, Peter Lang, 2016.

Exposé d’Élisabeth Beauvallet

Présentation de l’éditeur : Peter Lang

  • cesari_lindochineenguerresCesari, Laurent, L’Indochine en guerres 1945-1993, Paris, Éditions Belin, Histoire Belin Sup, 1995.

Exposé de Rémy Lacaze

Présentation de l’éditeur : Belin

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Quelques ouvrages clés :

  • Guérin, Mathieu, Hardy, Andrew, Nguyen Van Chinh et al., Des montagnards aux minorités ethniques. Quelle intégration pour les habitants des hautes terres du Viêt Nam et du Cambodge ? Paris / Bangkok, L’Harmattan / IRASEC, Analyses en regard, 2003. Cote IAO : 103AV.06/227
  • Hardy, Andrew [2003], Red Hills. Migrants and the state in the highlands of Vietnam, Copenhagen, Singapore, NIAS press / ISEAS, 2005. Cote IAO : 604AV.03/1161
  • Hickey, Gerald C., Free in the forest: ethnohistory of the Vietnamese central highlands, 1954-1976, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1982. Cote IAO : 600AV.03/534

Image « à la une » : Rizières en terrasse de Sapa © 1996 FG

Tâm T. T. Ngô: The New Way – Protestantism and the Hmong in Vietnam

[ndlr] Nouvelle publication sur la religion et la communauté Hmong au Viêt-Nam. Présentation de l’éditeur.

Tam T. T. Ngo, The New Way: Protestantism and the Hmong in Vietnam, Seattle, University of Washington Press, 2016.


In the mid-1980s, a radio program with a compelling spiritual message was accidentally received by listeners in Vietnam’s remote northern highlands. The Protestant evangelical communication had been created in the Hmong language by the Far East Broadcasting Company specifically for war refugees in Laos. The Vietnamese Hmong related the content to their traditional expectation of salvation by a Hmong messiah-king who would lead them out of subjugation, and they appropriated the evangelical message for themselves.

Today, the New Way (Kev Cai Tshiab) has some three hundred thousand followers in Vietnam. Tam T. T. Ngo reveals the complex politics of religion and ethnic relations in contemporary Vietnam and illuminates the dynamic interplay between local and global forces, socialist and postsocialist state building, cold war and post-cold war antagonisms, Hmong transnationalism, and U.S.-led evangelical expansionism.

Tam T. T. Ngo is a research fellow in the department of religious diversity at the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity in Germany.

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« Conversion to evangelical Protestantism by members of the Hmong community in Vietnam raises a host of questions: the impact of conversion on individual converts and non-converts; the relationship between Protestant eschatology and Hmong millenarianism; relations between the Hmong and the state; the transformation of this marginal community into the center of the Hmong diasporic imagination through radio broadcasts and US-based missionaries. This ethnographically rich and theoretically sophisticated study is a major contribution to a wide range of disciplines. »
-Hue-Tam Ho-Tai, Harvard University

 Source : University of Washington Press

Dr Nicholas Tapp (1952-2015)

[ndlr] Avis de décès à l’âge 63 ans à Shanghai de Nicholas Tapp, anthropologue reconnu spécialiste des Hmongs en Asie. Rappel de sa fiche institutionnelle sur le site de l’Australian National University. Mémoires d’Indochine s’associe à la douleur de la famille.

NicholasTappUnder a Chiang Ching-kuo Research Project, ‘Communal Diasporic Voluntary Public Cultures’, I have examined the impact of returns of overseas migrants to their Asian homelands, in collaboration with Dr Gary Lee. We were working in China, Thailand, Laos and Australia and included Hmong communities in France and the USA. Currently based in Shanghai, I am examining the impact of ethnic minority rural migrants in the city and their source locations. I have also recently completed projects on the self, consumerism and romanticism in China and among the diasporic Hmong community.

Lire la suite : ANU

Obituary Notice

Nicholas Tapp, internationally renowned anthropologist, specialist in the study of the Hmong, distinguished Professor and Director of the Research Institute of Anthropology, East China Normal University, has passed away due to illness on October 10, 2015, at the Shanghai Huashan Hospital. He was 63 years old.

Born in England on November 5, 1952, Nicholas Charles Theodore Tapp, earned a Bachelor’s degree in English Literature from the Cambridge University in 1975.He then studied at the University of London, where he obtained a Master’s degree in Southeast Asian Studies in 1979 and a doctoral degree in Social Anthropology in 1985.

From 1986 to 1992, Nicholas Tapp was Lecturer in Anthropology at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. From 1992 to 1996, he was Lecturer in Anthropology at the University of Edinburgh. From 1997 to 1999, he worked at the U.K. Overseas Development Administration as Forestry Project Team Leader. From 2000 to 2010,he was Senior Fellow in Anthropology at the Australian National University. Nicholas Tapp joined the East China Normal University in 2010, acting as Professor, Chair of the Sociology Department and Director of the Research Institute of Anthropology.

A memorial service is scheduled on October 28, 2015, at 1pm, at the 5th floor of the north Fashang Building (North Law and Business building), Minhang campus,East China Normal University.We kindly invite you to attend and join us to commemorate our good friend and honorable mentor.

Institute of Anthropology,East China Normal University

IHmongInAsia_couvmage « à la une » : couverture de Hmong / Miao in Asia by Nicholas Tapp, Jean Michaud, Christian Culas, Gary Yia Lee (Eds.), Silkworm Books, 2004.



Sarah Turner, Christine Bonnin, and Jean Michaud : Frontier Livelihoods – Hmong in the Sino-Vietnamese Borderlands [parution]

[ndlr] Parution d’un nouvel ouvrage sur les Hmongs, une étude fondée sur les archives et du terrain contemporain. Présentation de l’éditeur.


Do ethnic minorities have the power to alter the course of their fortune when living within a socialist state? In Frontier Livelihoods, the authors focus their study on the Hmong – known in China as the Miao – in the Sino-Vietnamese borderlands, contending that individuals and households create livelihoods about which governments often know little.

The product of wide-ranging research over many years, Frontier Livelihoods bridges the traditional divide between studies of China and peninsular Southeast Asia by examining the agency, dynamics, and resilience of livelihoods adopted by Hmong communities in Vietnam and in China’s Yunnan Province. It covers the reactions to state modernization projects among this ethnic group in two separate national jurisdictions and contributes to a growing body of literature on cross-border relationships between ethnic minorities in the borderlands of China and its neighbors and in Southeast Asia more broadly.


Preface and Acknowledgments vii

1 Upland Alternatives: An Introduction 3

2 Frontier Dynamics: Borders and the Hmong 20

3 Borderland Livelihoods: Everyday Decisions and Agrarian Change 38

4 Livestock Transactions: Buffalo Traversing the Borderlands 63

5 Locally Distilled Alcohol: Commodifying an Upland Tradition 84

6 Farming under the Trees: Old Skills and New Markets 104

7 Weaving Livelihoods: Local and Global Hmong Textile Trades 125

8 The Challenge: Making a Living on the Margins 148

Notes 173

Glossary 187

References 189

Index 217

Sarah Turner is professor of geography at McGill University. She is the author of Indonesia’s Small Entrepreneurs: Trading on the Margins and editor of Red Stamps and Gold Stars: Fieldwork Dilemmas in Upland Socialist Asia.

Christine Bonnin is lecturer in geography at University College Dublin.

Jean Michaud is professor of social anthropology at Université Laval. He is the author of The A to Z of the People of the Southeast Asian Massif and coeditor of Moving Mountains: Ethnicity and Livelihoods in Highland China, Vietnam, and Laos.

Réf. : Turner Sarah, Bonnin Christine, Michaud Jean, Frontier Livelihoods: Hmong in the Sino-Vietnamese Borderlands, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015.

Source : University of Washington Press

Les derniers combattants Hmongs – par Karim Ben-Ismaïl

[ndlr] Inédit dans l’Equipe Magazine (édition du 3 mai 2014), l’histoire de la famille Moua. Reportage de Karim Ben-Ismaïl. Photos Laurent Gudin.

Il y a soixante ans, leur famille combattait avec l’armée française dans les montagnes environnant Diên Biên Phu. Héritiers d’une lignée de maîtres de kung-fu, les frères MOUA brillent aujourd’hui dans les sports de combat.

© 2014 L’Equipe / Laurent Gudin

Source : L’Equipe Magazine

Pour se procurer la version numérique de l’article : Les derniers combattants Hmongs.

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Vang Moua et Pierre Moua au combat

Saint Paul Artist Oskar Ly: An Organizer and Ambassador for Hmong Arts

[ndlr] Coup d’œil sur le travail de l’artiste Hmong Oskar Ly (article de Nicole Rupersburg).

Oskar Ly © 2014, photo by Bill Kelley
Oskar Ly © 2014, photo by Bill Kelley

There are roughly 30,000 Hmong-Americans living in Saint Paul, Minnesota today, more than any other city in the country. The Twin Cities Metro area has a Hmong population of 64,000. While those may seem like small numbers when compared to the total population of 3.28 million in Twin Cities Metro, they are significant for a culture that has been historically small and relatively insular. […]

Oskar Ly is a Hmong French American living in Saint Paul. She grew up in a traditional Hmong household where her mother was always sewing, and as she got older Ly decided she wanted to make her own fashions. Ly is a fashion designer, hair and makeup artist, singer and songwriter, and much of what she does is to foster and promote Hmong arts and talent in the Saint Paul area.

It was through Hmong-organized open mics that Ly found her voice, so to speak, and was able to explore singing and songwriting. « Those are things I didn’t get to practice growing up, » she says. « It wasn’t encouraged. [Hmong] parents came from a refugee background and wanted something more for us; they wanted [their children to have] traditional careers. »

For her, creating music is an opportunity to celebrate and share Hmong culture. It doesn’t necessarily have to be Hmong music; it can be inspired by pop, folk, hip-hop, or anything else. « I personally don’t write in Hmong but others do, » she says. « People find self empowerment in their own language when even their parents don’t read or write in Hmong. We’re losing our language by the generation. Hmong don’t have their own national country; we’re hill tribe people. Because of a long history of being persecuted, Hmong people never had the ability to capture their language like other counties have in terms of writing – even something as simple as the alphabet [doesn’t exist]. »

Lire la suite : The Line, 17/03/2014.

Richard Owens: Measuring smallholder land investments in Northwest Vietnam: A cross-cultural study of three highland villages… [PhD] – presented by Jean Michaud

[ndlr] Message de Jean Michaud paru initialement sur VSG et reproduit sur Mémoires d’Indochine avec son aimable autorisation.

Richard Owens with Hmong farmers during harvest season for dry rice in Thuan Chau district, Son La Province, Northwest Vietnam.
Richard Owens with Hmong farmers during harvest season for dry rice in Thuan Chau district, Son La Province, Northwest Vietnam.

This to congratulate Richard Owens who has recently defended successfully his PhD dissertation in social anthropology at University of Georgia (USA) titled « Measuring smallholder land investments in Northwest Vietnam: A cross-cultural study of three highland villages in Phỏng Lái commune, Sơn La province. »

His abstract states:

« In this dissertation, I investigate the connection between land tenure and the conservation of natural resources in the northwestern uplands of Vietnam (Son La province) through a focus on the political and economic forces that shape smallholder investment practices. Within a historically-informed context, I analyze and compare smallholder land use decisions among Kinh, Hmong, and Thai groups considering identity, cultural practices, and household economics.  Recently, Vietnam has banned swidden agriculture in favor of the intensification of upland agriculture. To that purpose, it has provided technology, subsidies, and extension services targeted to lowland majority development models.

During the course of this dissertation, I analyze soil conservation activities in three villages (between and within designs) and across the commune at the household level.  Results from investment activities (short-term, long-term and household rate categories) show that smallholders’ long-term investments are significantly smaller in relation to household investments. I contend that there are a number of social, economic, and environmental reasons for why Hmong, Thai and Kinh are not making significant soil conservation investments. State polices aimed at suppressing swidden agriculture have been replaced with intensive upland farming, leading to increased erosion and land degradation. Traditional swidden systems do not require inputs, hence they are not receiving long-term investments. Upland farming is possible through the use of inorganic fertilizers that are necessary for HYV maize production. Examining the failure of the property rights to conserve natural resources this research makes a significant contribution to the theory of property rights This study considers the socio-cultural and economics dynamics of land title and natural resource management. « 

What I would also like to stress about Richard’s work is that he finds that ethnicity matters when locals get to assess economic opportunities and make strategic choices. The Hmông and Thái ways, he finds, are distinct from the Kinh’s and express different views on modernity, identity and aspirations. His research thus dovetails nicely with other recent dissertations based in rural communities of the northern highlands stressing that these non-Kinh societies show creativity and pro-activity in the course of their social and symbolic reproduction, such as (among others) Jennifer Sowerwine (Berkeley 2004), Bent Jørgensen (Göteborg 2006), Tran Hong Hanh (Freie U. Berlin 2006), Christine Bonnin (McGill 2011), Achariya Choowonglert (Chiang Mai 2012), Ho Ngoc Son (ANU 2012), and O’Briain (Sheffield 2012).

Jean Michaud
Département d’Anthropologie / Université Laval (Québec)

La Sécurité publique continue de détruire les maisons funéraires des H’mongs, symboles de leur nouvelle religion [EDA]

[ndlr] Tension croissante en novembre entre les H’mongs et les autorités locales. Analyse d’Eglises d’Asie.


Bien qu’ils soient parvenus jusque dans la capitale pour faire entendre leurs protestations, les H’mongs de quatre provinces septentrionales du Vietnam continuent d’être victimes de la répression des autorités locales. Les forces de l’ordre ont pris pour cible leurs maisons funéraires, construites pour y déposer les défunts et y accomplir les rites funéraires.

Les agents de la Sécurité publique organisent des opérations destinées à détruire les maisons funéraires, constructions symboliques du changement de vie introduit par la religion « Duong Van Minh » [Dương Văn Mình], qualifiée de « culte pervers » (Ta Dao) par le gouvernement. De plusieurs sources convergentes (1), on apprend que, dans la matinée du 24 novembre, les forces de la Sécurité publique ont lancé une opération contre le village de Na Heng, commune de Nam Vang (ou Nam Quang), district de Bao Lam, dans la province de Cao Bang, frontalière de la Chine. Dès la veille au soir, d’importantes forces de police avaient été rassemblées au chef-lieu du district. Lors de l’attaque, au matin avant l’aube, une quarantaine de H’mongs s’étaient porté à la hauteur de la maison funéraire pour essayer de la protéger. Selon les témoignages oraux rapportés par la population, 37 personnes auraient été blessées et 17 menottées et arrêtées par les forces de l’ordre. Celles-ci ont également confisqué toutes les caméras et les appareils photographiques.

Lire la suite : Eglises d’Asie, 25/11/2013.

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Sur ce sujet, voir la vidéo sélectionnée par

Giải Phóng Viên Vỉa Hè 23 (tháng 11. 2013)

Với sự hỗ trợ của Phóng Viên Không Biên Giới

XXIIIe Prix du Reporter de Rue (novembre 2013)

Soutenu par Reporters Sans Frontières

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Autre vidéo sur un groupe de jeunes H’mong à Hanoi expliquant ses revendications.

The 5th International Conference on Hmong Studies [Call for papers]

Call for Papers/Presentations

The 5th International Conference on Hmong Studies

Friday, 21 March 2014 – Sunday, 23 March 2014

Concordia University St. Paul

1282 Concordia Avenue

St. Paul, Minnesota 55104


Leap into the Hmong New Year © 2009 N A

The Center for Hmong Studies at Concordia University-St. Paul is pleased to announce its Fifth International Conference on Hmong Studies. The purpose of this conference is to provide opportunities for emerging and established Hmong and non-Hmong scholars to share their research on Hmong related topics, to inspire and motivate students to engage in scholarly research, and to recognize distinguished scholars for their work in the field of Hmong Studies.


Call for Papers/Presentations

The Fifth International Conference on Hmong Studies is seeking proposals for individual papers and organized panels.

For individual papers, please provide the title, a 250-word abstract, name and affiliation, contact information, and a one-page curriculum vitae or brief biography. Individual presentations should run no longer than 60 minutes and should include 15 minutes for questions and discussions.

Organized panels should consist of three to four panelists and one moderator. Please provide a title, brief description of the panel, 250-word abstracts for each paper, and the names and institutional affiliations of all participants. Each panel is allotted 60 minutes, inclusive of open forum.

Please submit individual papers and panel proposals to The deadline for submission of papers and proposals is November 29, 2013. Complete papers are due by February 28, 2014. Selected papers will be considered for publication in an edited volume by the Center for Hmong Studies.

Topics may include but are not limited to:

  • Acculturation & Adaptation
  • Art, Music & Media
  • Business & Economic Development
  • Culture & Society
  • Language, Linguistics & Literature
  • Current Hmong Issues
  • Diaspora Community
  • Education
  • Families & Children
  • Gender Relations
  • Health & Wellness
  • Hmong in China, Thailand, Laos, France, etc.
  • Hmong History
  • Hmong Identity
  • Leadership
  • Politics
  • Religious Beliefs & Practices
  • Urbanization
  • Youth


All tracks will be presented in English unless noted. When submitting your proposal, please indicate whether your presentation will be in Hmong, English or other languages. Proposals should be submitted to

Please direct questions concerning this Call for Papers or the conference to:


Lee Pao Xiong, Director
Center for Hmong Studies
Concordia University, St. Paul
1282 Concordia Avenue
Saint Paul, Minnesota 55104
Phone: 651-641-8870