Archives par mot-clé : guerre du Viêt Nam

Cody J. Foster : Did America Commit War Crimes in Vietnam?

[ndlr] Dans la série « Vietnam ’67 », un article à lire sur le tribunal Russell organisé par des intellectuels européens pour dénoncer la guerre menée par les Américains au Viêt-Nam.

On Dec. 1, 1967, the last day of the International War Crimes Tribunal’s second session, antiwar activists from around the world gathered in Roskilde, Denmark. The panel, also known as the Russell Tribunal after its founder, the philosopher Bertrand Russell, had spent a year investigating America’s intervention in Southeast Asia and was now ready to announce its findings. Tribunal members unanimously found the United States “guilty on all charges, including genocide, the use of forbidden weapons, maltreatment and killing of prisoners, violence and forceful movement of prisoners” in Vietnam and its neighbors Laos and Cambodia.

Russell often stated that he was inspired by the Nuremberg trials. But the Russell Tribunal was not a government body or treaty organization; it had neither the legal authority nor the means to carry out justice after its findings. The tribunal’s mission was to raise awareness about the impact of the war on Vietnamese civilians. “The Nuremberg Tribunal asked for and secured the punishment of individuals,” Russell stated during the sessions. “The International War Crimes Tribunal is asking the peoples of the world, the masses, to take action to stop the crimes.”

The philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre presided over the tribunal and helped to recruit 23 other internationally recognized academics, scientists, lawyers, former heads of state and peace activists whose self-professed moral consciousness persuaded them to accept the tribunal’s invitation. Across two separate sessions, between May 2 and May 10, 1967, in Stockholm, and between Nov. 20 and Dec. 1, 1967 in Roskilde, the members weighed the evidence that each had found during several fact-finding trips to Vietnam between the two sessions.

These missions allowed tribunal members to assess the damage the war had wrought on civilians and verify firsthand the claims heard during the tribunal’s first session. One such mission, which included the labor activist Lawrence Daly, the journalist Tariq Ali and the writer Carol Brightman, returned with indisputable proof that the United States Air Force had deliberately bombed civilian facilities and infrastructure, including hospitals, schools, churches and villages.

Lire la suite : New York Times, 01/12/2017

Autres articles de la série :

Vietnam ’67

Historians, veterans and journalists recall 1967 in Vietnam, a year that changed the war and changed America.

 

Illustration « à la une » : Simone de Beauvoir et Jean-Paul Sartre (au centre), lors d’une session du Tribunal Russell accusant les États-Unis de violer les droits de l’homme et le droit international au Viêt-Nam. © Getty Images

Séminaire « Mémoires d’Indochine » 2017 : séance 7

Année universitaire 2017-2018 / Master Asie Orientale Contemporaine (ASIOC) / Semestre 1

ENS de Lyon / Sciences Po Lyon

Mémoires d’Indochine :

Récits de vie, histoire et littérature : connexions et déconnexions

★ ★ ★

Expériences métisses

Séance 7 : mercredi 15 novembre 2017– salle D4.024

Cette dernière séance du séminaire est consacrée à la question des métis en Indochine sous la colonisation française puis pendant la guerre du Viêt-Nam. En compagnie de Nastassia Sersté nous évoquerons les destins d’enfants métis à travers plusieurs œuvres, roman ou récits autobiographiques. Nous nous positionnerons ainsi du côté de celles et ceux qui furent marginalisés ou discriminés du fait de leur double appartenance culturelle ou sociale.

La seconde partie du séminaire, dédiée aux exposés oraux, reviendra sur la question du déroulement de la guerre du Viêt-Nam à travers l’expérience sud-coréenne et l’analyse du long documentaire de Ken Burns et de Lynn Novick qui a fait débat.

Nastassia Sersté est historienne, reçue à l’agrégation d’histoire en 2015. Elle a fait ses études en Belgique à l’Université catholique de Louvain. En 2016, elle a commencé son doctorat à l’Université de Rouen (France) dans le cadre du projet international et interdisciplinaire ChiBOW (Children Born of War – Past, Present and Future) soutenu par l’Union Européenne au sein du programme Marie Curie Horizon2020. Sa recherche porte sur les Enfants de la Guerre du Vietnam (1955-1975) accueillis en France, en particulier l’expérience de vie des enfants métis nés de père soldat étranger et de mère locale vietnamienne. Ainsi, son étude touche principalement aux domaines de l’histoire diplomatique, l’histoire internationale, l’histoire culturelle, l’histoire sociale et de moindre mesure l’histoire militaire. Sa méthodologie combine travail archivistique et Histoire orale.

★ ★ ★

Exposés oraux


  • Hwang Sok-Yong, L’ombre des armes, Paris, Éditions Zulma, 2003.

Exposé de Julia Fournier

Présentation de l’éditeur : Zulma

En pleine guerre du Viêt Nam, Ahn Yeong-kyu, jeune caporal de l’armée coréenne, est affecté à Da Nang, au département d’enquête des forces alliées. Il est chargé de la surveillance du marché noir, qui fait rage…


  • Documentaire The Vietnam War de Ken Burns & Lynn Novick, PBS en association avec ARTE France, 2017.

Exposé de Manon Barret

Site de l’éditeur dédié au film : PBS

Présentation du film documentaire à Columbia University : The Vietnam War: A Film by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick


★ ★ ★

Sources mobilisées :

Duyên Anh, La colline de Fanta, Paris, Pierre Belfond, 1989, ouvrage réédité par Fayard, coll. « Les enfants du fleuve », 1995 (Traduit du vietnamien par Tran Van Nghiêm et Ghislain Ripault) et adapté au cinéma par Rachid Bouchared, Poussières de vie (1994), bande-annonce ci-dessous.

Kim Lefèvre, Métisse Blanche, Paris, B. Barrault, 1989, L’Aube poche, 1989, réédité chez Phébus, 2008.

Kien Nguyen, The Unwanted: A Memoir of Childhood, Boston, Little, Brown & Company, 2002. Ouvrage traduit en français sous le titre La nuit nous a surpris (Denoël, 2001).

 

Image « à la une » : photos de Kim Lefèvre et de Kien Nguyen enfants en couverture de leur récit autobiographique © DR

George J. Veith & Merle Pribbenow : The Return to War: North Vietnamese Decision-Making, 1973-1975

[ndlr] Parution en ligne d’une étude de George J. Veith et Merle Pribbenow sur la reprise de la guerre après les Accords de Paris de 1973.

Edited and Annotated by George J. Veith
Translations by Merle L. Pribbenow

November 2017

In support of the Cold War International History Project’s efforts to facilitate the release of historical materials from governments on all sides of the Cold War, we have compiled 80 primary source documents dealing with North Vietnam’s decision-making from the signing of the Paris Peace Accords in January 1973 until the end of the war, April 1975. The documents are appended to this Working Paper and accessible on DigitalArchive.org.

Much of this declassified information formed the basis for the book, Black April: The Fall of South Vietnam, 1973-1975. This array of cables, memoranda, and directives provides a fascinating glimpse inside Hanoi’s choice in 1973 to return to war—despite having just signed the Paris Peace Accords. The files deliver insights into how the Politburo of the Vietnamese Workers’ Party, and its major command in the southern half of South Vietnam known as COSVN, viewed the situation after the accords. These documents clarify, to some extent, Hanoi’s decision to resume armed conflict in the south. They further outline Hanoi’s preparations in 1974 for launching a new offensive and the goals the Politburo wished to achieve, as well as the detailed military planning aimed at defeating South Vietnam. In the 1975 time-frame, the documents provide unique insights into how Hanoi’s military commanders managed the campaign that led to the rapid collapse of South Vietnam.

While this collection is voluminous, the author of and translator for this Working Paper did not include every document released by the editors of the volumes cited in the bibliography. We reviewed each document in various Vietnamese Communist publications, but only chose to translate those directly related to the fall of South Vietnam or those which provided information of broader and significant historical interest. Thus, many documents from the volumes of the Van Kien Dang series (a massive collection of nearly 40,000 pages of mostly internal Vietnamese Communist Party documents) were not translated and included in this Working Paper simply because they dealt with mundane party or economic affairs.

Although this set of documents cannot be considered definitive, it does provide one of the most detailed views of Vietnamese Communist decision-making ever unveiled for a specific period. However, the materials included in this study are almost exclusively documentary, as we chose not to incorporate information from the numerous memoirs, battle studies, or unit histories. We did, though, feature some secondary materials from the 1973 time-frame solely to help illuminate the thin documentary record on the Politburo’s decision to resume armed conflict in the South. While these other sources do generally agree on the Politburo’s review and approval process to resume the war, we suspect that the decision was not as smooth or unanimous as the Party portrays, especially after achieving a spectacular military victory in 1975.

Lire la suite : Wilson Center

Ou cliquer sur l’image ci-dessous pour accéder au PDF en ligne :

George J. Veith is the author of three books on the Vietnam War, including Code Name Bright Light: The Untold Story of U.S. POW Rescue Efforts during the Vietnam War (1998) and Black April: The Fall of South Vietnam, 1973-1975 (2013).

Merle Pribbenow is a former CIA officer who served in Vietnam from April 1970 to April 1975, and is the translator of Volume 2 of the history of the People’s Army of Vietnam, which was published by the University of Kansas Press as Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People’s Army of Vietnam, 1954-1975 (2002).

Séminaire « Mémoires d’Indochine » 2017 : séance 3

Année universitaire 2017-2018 / Master Asie Orientale Contemporaine (ASIOC) / Semestre 1

ENS de Lyon / Sciences Po Lyon

Mémoires d’Indochine :

Récits de vie, histoire et littérature : connexions et déconnexions

★ ★ ★

Guerres directes et indirectes

Séance 3 : mercredi 4 octobre 2017 – salle D4.070 (IAO)

« La guerre, comme l’amour, ne se raconte pas » écrit Phan Huy Duong le traducteur de Bao Ninh. Alors que la guerre fait rage au Viêt-Nam pendant plus de trente ans, elle a varié en intensité. La guerre à Cantho, dans le delta du Mékong, n’est pas la même qu’à Danang. Dien Bien Phu, le Verdun vietnamien, s’écrit aujourd’hui à hauteur d’hommes avec de la peur et des larmes. La guerre vue de Saigon reçoit les échos des brutalités commises par les hommes en armes dans les deltas et dans la jungle. Les petites « guerres » qui se déroulent sur les campus américains, japonais ou européens en forment des échos indirects et lointains. Hanoi sous les bombardements de 1972 ou la Piste Ho Chi Minh sous les nuages de défoliants et sous les orages de feu ont laissé des traces profondes dans les récits de ceux qui l’ont vécu. Pour l’écrivain Bao Ninh, un des premiers à briser le tabou de l’héroïsme officiel, la guerre n’est que dévastation et reste à toujours sans vainqueurs. A travers quelques textes, nous explorons ce qu’en disent les écrivains et comment la déchirure s’exprime.

Sources mobilisées :

  • Bao Ninh, Le chagrin de la guerre, Arles, Philippe Picquier, 1994, p. 15-27.
  • Nha Ca, Les canons tonnent la nuit, Arles, Philippe Picquier, 1997, p. 103-150.
  • Vu Bao, « Le héros qui pissait dans son froc », dans Le héros qui pissait dans son froc, La Tour d’Aigues, L’Aube, 1996, p. 51-62.

 

Quelques récits accompagnants cette séance :

Dang Thuy Trâm, Les carnets retrouvés, 1968-1970, Arles, Philippe Picquier, 2010.

Dao Thanh Huyen et al., Dien Bien Phu vu d’en face. Paroles de bô dôi, Paris, Nouveau Monde éditions, 2010.

Lê Cao Dai, C’était au Tây Nguyên. Journal de guerre d’un chirurgien nord-vietnamien, 1965-1973, Hanoi, Editions The Gioi, 2006.

Ngo Van Chieu, Journal d’un combattant Viêt-Minh, Paris, Seuil, 1955.

  • Portrait de Phan Nhat Nam : Phan Nhật Nam (1943) is a writer, known as South Vietnam’s most famous war reporter.

 

Analyses du roman de Bao Ninh :

Doan Cam Thi, « Le Chagrin de la guerre » ou l’impossible autobiographie, La Revue des Ressources, mardi 1er février 2011.

Phan Huy Duong, « Une douleur sans perspective », in Bao Ninh, Le chagrin de la guerre, Arles, Philippe Picquier, 1994, p. 5-14.

 

Image « à la une » : « Guerre en Asie » par FX et illustration photographique de l’agence Sputnik, La piste Ho Chi Minh.

La Guerre du Vietnam à La Fabrique de l’histoire (4 épisodes)

[ndlr] Annonce de quatre épisodes radiophoniques de La Fabrique de l’histoire, l’émission d’Emmanuel Laurentin sur la Guerre du Viêt-Nam. A réécouter sur France Culture.

    • – 18/09/2017 :

Guerre du Vietnam (1/4) :

Guerre froide en Asie, le Vietnam et autres conflits

    • – 19/09/2017 :

Guerre du Vietnam (2/4) :

La guerre du Vietnam, chronique d’une guerre non-déclarée : les mots de la guerre

    • – 20/09/2017 :

Guerre du Vietnam (3/4) :

Les images de la guerre

    • – 21/09/2017 :

Guerre du Vietnam (4/4) :

Héritages stratégiques de la guerre

Peter Zinoman : Thấy gì từ tập đầu phim Vietnam War?

[ndlr] L’analyse par Peter Zinoman du premier épisode de la série The Vietnam War, documentaire en dix épisodes de Ken Burns et de Lynn Novick. Lire sur le site de la BBC (en vietnamien) les remarques pertinentes de cet historien, professeur d’histoire à l’Université de Berkeley, Californie.

Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam) khác tất cả các phim tài liệu mà Ken Burns/Lynn Novicks đã làm xưa nay. Các bộ phim đó đều kể về một câu chuyện đặc trưng và rõ ràng với quan điểm « nước Mỹ trên hết. » Ngoài người Mỹ ra thì còn ai có thể là diễn viên chính trong các bộ phim trước đây của Burns/Novick, chẳng hạn như The Brooklyn Bridge (Cây cầu Brooklyn), The Statue of Liberty (Tượng thần Tự do), The Civil War (Nội chiến), Baseball (Bóng chày), The West (Miền Tây), Thomas Jefferson, Lewis and Clark (Lewis và Clark), Jazz (nhạc Jazz), Mark Twain, Prohibition (Luật cấm đồ cồn) and The Dust Bowl (Một vùng cát bụi).

Nhưng với cuộc chiến ở Việt Nam, chúng ta có thể biện luận rằng người Việt xứng đáng đóng vai chính trong câu chuyện. Xét cho cùng, từ 1 đến 3 triệu người Việt đã bỏ mạng trong chiến tranh, lớn hơn rất nhiều (gấp từ 20 đến 60 lần) con số khoảng 58.000 người Mỹ chết trong cuộc xung đột.

Những thiệt hại kinh khủng cả về vật chất và môi trường do bom đạn, chất khai quang, chiến tranh ở các vùng đô thị, chiến tranh du kích và chống du kích ở vùng nông thôn đã ảnh hưởng trầm trọng đến riêng vùng lãnh thổ Đông Nam Á, cũng như vấn nạn khổng lồ của tình trạng người dân trong nước buộc phải tản cư, di cư.

Hệ quả của cuộc chiến đối với người Việt lớn hơn so với người Mỹ cũng được thể hiện rõ qua khoảng thời gian trung bình mà mỗi bên phải trải nghiệm. Trong khi phần lớn người Mỹ tham chiến ở Việt Nam khoảng trên dưới 1 năm trong giai đoạn giữa 1965 và 1973, thì người Việt sinh ra sau Thế chiến thứ Hai phải sống trong thời chiến suốt ba mươi năm ròng rã từ 1945 đến 1975. Xét sự nổi trội cả về con số người Việt lẫn tầm mức thiệt hại không thể sánh được mà họ là nạn nhân, việc đặt người Việt vào vai trò trung tâm trong thời đoạn lịch sử đen tối này, ít ra, cũng phải là một mệnh lệnh đạo đức khiêm tốn.

Lire la suite : BBC Vietnamese, 19/09/2017.

Ken Burns et Lynn Novick : « The Vietnam War » [Arte 19-27 septembre 2017]

[ndlr] Annonce d’une nouvelle série documentaire de dix épisodes de 55′ chacun sur le conflit vietnamien. Présentation du premier épisode sur la chaîne Arte.

Ken Burns et Lynn Novick (« The [Vietnam] War ») font revivre le traumatique Vietnam de l’intérieur. Une plongée sanglante au cœur de la tragédie qui a façonné la fin du XXe siècle.

  • Premier volet : Indochine, la fin (1858-1961). Au terme d’une guerre longue et brutale, les révolutionnaires indépendantistes du Viêt-minh, menés par Hô Chi Minh, mettent fin à près d’un siècle de domination coloniale française.

Au terme d’une guerre longue et brutale, les révolutionnaires indépendantistes du Viêt-minh, menés par Hô Chi Minh, mettent fin à près d’un siècle de domination coloniale française. Les accords de Genève, signés après la chute de Diên Biên Phu en 1954, divisent le pays en deux. Au Nord, le Viêt-minh communiste, soutenu par la Chine et l’URSS, veut réunifier le pays. Au Viêtnam du Sud, pris dans la logique d’une guerre froide qui s’intensifie, les États-Unis apportent leur soutien au régime autocratique du président Diêm. Début 1961, la ligne dure prônée par Lê Duân, premier secrétaire du Viêt-minh, encourage la guérilla menée dans les zones rurales du Sud par le « Viêt-cong » – surnom donné par leurs ennemis au bras armé du FNL, fondé par les indépendantistes du Sud.

La mère des guerres modernes

Ken Burns et Lynn Novick font revivre de manière inédite la guerre du Viêtnam au plus près de ceux qui l’ont vécue, Vietnamiens et Américains, dans une fresque documentaire digne d’ »Apocalypse Now « ou de « Voyage au bout de l’enfer ». En neuf épisodes, les réalisateurs retracent ces trente années de soulèvements et de destructions, qui firent plus de trois millions de morts, à travers les récits intimes de près d’une centaine de témoins. Simple militaire ou dirigeant politique, journaliste ou activiste, déserteur, diplomate ou sœur d’un soldat défunt, tous ont fait, observé ou subi cette tragédie aux dimensions épiques, mère de toutes les guerres modernes. Au fil d’une narration où le rythme s’accélère d’épisode en épisode, une foule d’archives inédites, fruit de dix ans de recherche, associée à de célèbres photos, des films amateurs ou des enregistrements sonores dévoilant les coulisses de la Maison-Blanche, racontent l’histoire de la fin du colonialisme, de la montée en puissance de la guerre froide et de la victoire d’un peuple de paysans contre la machine de guerre la plus dévastatrice au monde. Ou l’histoire d’un conflit qui a divisé l’Amérique et l’opinion mondiale pour toujours.

Source : Arte

Lire la critique de Thomas A. Bass sur Mekong Review (en accès libre seulement quelques jours) : https://mekongreview.com/americas-amnesia/

Carie Uyen Nguyen : Whose War Was It? [Aug. 18, 2017]

[ndlr] Poursuite des publications du New York Times sur la guerre du Viêt-Nam dans la série Vietnam ’67 (Historians, veterans and journalists recall 1967 in Vietnam, a year that changed the war and changed America).

Perhaps no one came out of the Vietnam War with a reputation as tarnished as the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. Since well before the war ended, ARVN soldiers were made an easy and ready scapegoat for America’s losses, a stereotype that found its way into academia and popular culture. We’re told they were incompetent cowards who often shirked their duties, leaving the hard work to the Americans.

As a Vietnamese student at an American university with an extensive archive of Vietnam-era oral histories, both written and tape-recorded, I’ve had a unique opportunity to dig deeper, to find all the ways that this story is flimsy and unfair. Unique because it’s not about showing that American soldiers were wrong — rather, I’ve come across account after account from American veterans talking about the courage and effectiveness of their allied brothers, the South Vietnamese soldiers.

Of course, I’ve come across many Americans with negative attitudes about ARVN. But a lot of them were rear-area personnel, people who never fought alongside ARVN and, I imagine, drew inaccurate conclusions from secondhand accounts they’d hear on base. Other negative accounts focused more on cultural differences than anything else. More than one talked about ARVN soldiers’ penchant for walking hand in hand as they headed out to battle. An American radio specialist who served in Binh Duong in 1967 could not understand it, even many years later: “That was kind of strange to us. I don’t think it was any more than they were just good friends, and that’s what they did over there, but it just seemed kind of strange.”

Other American veterans found it strange that the families of ARVN soldiers would often follow them to camp. As one G.I. contemplated: “So these troops were largely draftees. They went into the field with their wives and kids along with them in trail. When they set up the night defensive position, it was like the extended family was there. They did not want to go out and fight in many cases. They just wanted to survive and take care of their families.”

But in my research, the Americans’ critical assessments are easily matched, and then some, by sympathetic, positive accounts of ARVN. For example, many veterans actually liked having ARVN families nearby and praised the willingness of some wives to risk their lives to get fresh produce from nearby villages to cook hearty meals for their husbands and American soldiers. Others recognized that having family members nearby could be a solid source of moral support for ARVN soldiers, a reminder of what they were fighting for.

Lire la suite : New York Times

Carie Uyen Nguyen is a doctoral student in military history at Texas Tech University.

Image « à la une » : Marines of E Company, Second Battalion, with soldiers of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) during a break from patrolling near Da Nang in 1965. © U.S. Marine Corps, via Getty Images

Dịu-Hương Nguyễn – “Eve of Destruction: A Social History of Vietnam’s Royal City, 1957-1967” [PhD]

[ndlr] Annonce de la soutenance de thèse (PhD) de Dịu-Hương Nguyễn sur l’histoire sociale de Huê, l’ancienne ville impériale, en temps de guerre. Résumé de Christoph Giebel sur ce travail qu’il a dirigé. Nous le remercions pour son aimable autorisation pour la publication de cette annonce.

Dr Diu-Huong Nguyen © 2017

With great pleasure I’d like to announce that Dịu-Hương Nguyễn successfully defended her dissertation last week at the University of Washington in Seattle and earned a PhD degree in History with a specialization in modern Viet Nam. Her dissertation is titled “Eve of Destruction: A Social History of Vietnam’s Royal City, 1957-1967” and captures Huế and its residents in the decade between the founding of the University of Huế and the city’s near-total destruction in early 1968. With great sensitivity and attention to detail, Hương Nguyễn is able to recreate in evocative ways the habits of life in Huế, its citizens’ quotidian interactions, activities, and concerns, the mentalité of the times, even the sounds and smells of street life in this former royal city renowned for its tranquility, pastoral ambience, and measured rhythm of public life. While the years 1957-1962 were marked by increasing urbanization and a renewed cultural and intellectual scene, the religious and political upheavals of 1963 rocked the city, and during 1964-1967, war and civil strife cast ominous clouds and crept ever closer to the city.

Hương Nguyễn’s dissertation focuses our attention on several critically understudied areas in the field: on Central Viet Nam and Huế in their own right, on social history and urban transformations, and on Vietnamese human experiences and the voices of ordinary people at a time of violent conflict. It is an important, timely corrective to the still dominant top-down approaches to Viet Nam at war, with their overwhelming emphasis on political and military affairs and their habitual employment of simplistic regional, political and ideological binaries, holdouts from the Cold War. In this dissertation, pre-1968 Huế and its inhabitants reappear in their rich multiplicity and local specificity that have long defied cooptation by any larger claim of the powerful.

Admirably researched under sometimes challenging circumstances, the dissertation is based on materials found in the Provincial Archives of Huế, Viet Nam’s National Archives II and III, multiple media and literary sources, as well as published memoirs and a host of interviews of current and former residents of Huế conducted on three continents. Hương Nguyễn’s doctoral committee at UW comprised Professors Laurie Sears, Raymond Jonas, Miriam Kahn, and Christoph Giebel (chair).  Professors Nguyễn Quang Ngọc and Phạm Hồng Tung at VNU’s History Department and William Frederick at Ohio University’s Southeast Asia Program provided earlier guidance as well. The completion of the dissertation was supported by a prestigious Mellon/American Council of Learned Societies fellowship.  Congratulations, Dr. Nguyễn Dịu-Hương!

C. Giebel

UW-Seattle, USA

Image « à la une » : Vue d’une rue animée de Huê dans les années 1950 (Sontrung’s Blog).

Lê Thanh Nghị, « Report on meetings with Party leaders of eight socialist countries » [1965]

[ndlr] Signalement d’une archive en ligne sur le site du Wilson Center.

North Vietnamese Deputy Prime Minister and Politburo member Le Thanh Nghi recounts his discussions with socialist leaders in the summer of 1965, just as the war in the south was heating up.

“Report on Meetings with Party Leaders of Eight Socialist Countries”

During these talks, in each country we focused on providing to the Party and State leaders internal information on the Vietnamese people’s struggle against the American imperialist aggressors and on our Party Central Committee’s assessments and policies. We provided clear explanations of the plots of the American imperialists, described the victories our struggle has won, and explained our strategic resolve to defeat the American imperialists, to defend the North, liberate the South, and to advance toward the peaceful unification of our country. We described our determined resolve to overcome all difficulties and hardships in order to achieve total victory, and we clearly spelled out the certainty of our victory. We also told the Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries that if Vietnam did not resolutely defeat the American imperialist will to commit aggression, the American imperialists would become aggressive and would try to put their foot on our collective heads. They would escalate their acts of aggression and instigate wars against a number of the other fraternal countries, including even the Eastern European countries. We made careful presentations so that the fraternal countries would understand that we were not using only military measures in our struggle and that we were not rigid and machine-like; instead we made it clear that we have a clear and profound understanding of our nation’s most sacred revolutionary mission, which is also a heavy and glorious international duty for us.

In general, in all eight socialist countries that we visited (China, the Soviet Union, Poland, Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and North Korea), the Party and State leaders whom we met all indicated that they agreed with our assessments and our analyses; they agreed with the policies and positions of our Party Central Committee; and they said that they would actively support and help us.

[Handwritten: Brother Tuan will type up an official copy, which should be about 20 pages long]

[Handwritten: 24 copies]

Pour citer ce document :

« Lê Thanh Nghị, ‘Report on Meetings with Party Leaders of Eight Socialist Countries’, » 1965, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, 8058 – “Báo cáo của Phó Thủ tướng Lê Thanh Nghị về việc gặp các đồng chí lãnh đạo của Đảng và Nhà nước 8 nước xã hội chủ nghĩa năm 1965,” Phủ Thủ tướng, Vietnam National Archives Center 3 (Hanoi). Obtained by Pierre Asselin and translated by Merle Pribbenow.

https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/134601

Source : Wilson Center Digital Archive