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Viêt-Nam, fractures d’une nation – Présentation, erratum et compléments

Cette page est dédiée à la présentation de l’ouvrage Viêt-Nam, fractures d’une nation. Une histoire contemporaine de 1858 à nos jours (Paris, La Découverte Poche / Sciences humaines et sociales, #476, 2018, 385 p.). Sortie officielle le jeudi 25 janvier 2018.

Présentation :

Le Viêt-Nam, connu pour sa lutte héroïque pour l’indépendance, fut un des grands mythes du XXe siècle. Entre décolonisation et guerre fratricide, son histoire apparaît comme exemplaire mais que sait-on de ses fractures internes ? Quels furent les chemins des possibles pour ce pays colonisé et décolonisé dans la violence ? Quelles furent ses sources d’inspiration ? Quels types de révolutions et de guerres ce pays a-t-il traversé au cours du XXe siècle ? Cet ouvrage nous convie à une exploration inédite du Viêt-Nam « vu de l’intérieur » de l’empire démantelé pendant le XIXe siècle à l’État-nation réunifié d’aujourd’hui. Cette perspective permet de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement du pays, dirigé par un État-Parti, et de penser plus largement le Viêt-Nam contemporain dans un monde asiatique confronté à la puissance chinoise et la mondialisation. Elle permet également de saisir l’enchevêtrement des dominations internes (coloniales et postcoloniales) et la persistance de certaines lignes de fractures. Pour accompagner ce récit, l’auteur mobilise des documents et des sources peu connus et propose des encadrés sur des thématiques clés.

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Pour prolonger cette histoire :

Nous invitons invitons nos lecteurs/trices à suivre la rubrique « Clés du Viêt-Nam contemporain » et d’autres billets consacrés à la thématique de l’ouvrage :

  • Aperçu illustré sur les organisations politiques, religieuses et culturelles vietnamiennes contemporaines. Pendant la première moitié du XXe siècle, le Viêt-Nam colonisé et démantelé par les Français offre l’image d’une résistance opiniâtre. Tenues en échec jusqu’au 9 mars 1945, les organisations révolutionnaires finissent par l’emporter dans un pays déchiré. Après une longue période de guerre, les vainqueurs réunifient le pays en 1976 sous le nom de République socialiste du Viêt-Nam. Le Parti communiste vietnamien (PCV), clé de voûte du nouvel État réunifié, met en place un régime politique sans partage. En 1988, avec la disparition de deux partis fantômes (Parti Démocrate et Parti Socialiste) qui l’accompagnait depuis les années quarante, le PCV reste la seule organisation politique officielle.

[à suivre]

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Erratum :

Dans le premier tirage de l’ouvrage, une erreur typographique s’est glissée dans la composition du tableau 13 de la page 209. Le premier chiffre de la colonne « décès » a été doublé, il est de trop. Tableau corrigé ci-dessous :

Cette erreur typographique ainsi que d’autres coquilles de moindre importance seront corrigées dans la version numérique et lors des prochains tirages du livre.

Toutes nos excuses à nos lecteurs/trices.

Illustration « à la une » : RDVN, Hanoi, juin 1946, commémoration de Nguyen Thai Hoc, chef du VNQDD, et des insurgés de Yên Bai guillotinés en 1930 © Tạp chí Xưa & Nay (collection Philippe Devillers)

Merrill A. McPeak : Bombing the Ho Chi Minh Trail

[ndlr] Article paru dans le New York Times le 26 décembre 2017, descente aux enfers sur la Piste Hô Chi Minh.

I spent 1967 flying air shows with the Thunderbirds, the Air Force aerobatic team, and worrying the war in Vietnam would be over before I got there. All my fighter pilot buddies were in the thick of it, and here I was in front of friendly crowds instead of enemy troops — recruiting duty instead of combat — and in an assignment I couldn’t leave before completing a two-year tour.

I needn’t have worried; the war would wait for me. When my turn came, I logged 269 sorties, many of them highly classified because we weren’t supposed to be flying over Laos. But we were, and my outfit’s job was to stop traffic down the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

Interestingly, the North Vietnamese didn’t call it the Ho Chi Minh Trail. It twisted through the Truong Son Mountains of the Central Highlands, which run nearly the length of Vietnam along its border with Laos and Cambodia. For the North, the trail was either the Truong Son Strategic Supply Route, or Highway 559, numerals that memorialized the month (May) and year (1959) the government of North Vietnam reached a formal decision to provide active support to the insurrection in the South.

Hanoi could never have sustained military operations in the South without a way to send men and supplies into the region. Of course, neither could we. We built an impressive, modern infrastructure — air bases, port facilities, pipelines, the huge supply depot at Long Binh.

Meanwhile, starting in the late 1950s, North Vietnam appropriated a piece of Laotian real estate the size of Massachusetts and constructed an infrastructure that in many ways mirrored ours: hundreds of miles of road, communications centers, ammo dumps, stockpiles of food and fuel, truck parks, troop bivouacs. The North Vietnamese did this in a much more difficult environment: a sparsely populated region of rugged mountains, triple-canopy jungle and dense primeval rain forest. It was one of history’s great achievements in military engineering, and all of it hidden from sight except for the trace of the road itself.

Lire la suite : New York Times

Illustration « à la une » : Merrill McPeak in Vietnam © NYT

Pierre Asselin : Vietnam’s American War – A History

[ndlr] Parution le 11 janvier 2018 du nouvel ouvrage de Pierre Asselin portant sur la conduite de la guerre vue de Hanoi.

Communist forces in the Vietnam War lost most battles and suffered disproportionally higher casualties than the United States and its allies throughout the conflict. The ground war in South Vietnam and the air war in the North were certainly important in shaping the fates of the victors and losers, but they alone fail to explain why Hanoi bested Washington in the end. To make sense of the Vietnam War, we must look beyond the war itself. In his new work, Pierre Asselin explains the formative experiences and worldview of the men who devised communist strategies and tactics during the conflict, and analyzes their rationale and impact. Drawing on two decades of research in Vietnam’s own archives, including classified policy statements and reports, Asselin expertly and straightforwardly relates the Vietnamese communist experience – and the reasons the war turned out the way it did.

Continuer la lecture de Pierre Asselin : Vietnam’s American War – A History

Cody J. Foster : Did America Commit War Crimes in Vietnam?

[ndlr] Dans la série « Vietnam ’67 », un article à lire sur le tribunal Russell organisé par des intellectuels européens pour dénoncer la guerre menée par les Américains au Viêt-Nam.

Continuer la lecture de Cody J. Foster : Did America Commit War Crimes in Vietnam?

Trần Thiện Đạo (1933-2017)

[ndlr] Annonce du décès de Trần Thiện Đạo le 25 novembre 2017 à Villejuif à l’âge de 85 ans.

Né au Viêt-Nam en 1933, il résidait et enseignait en France (et en Angleterre) depuis 1950. A la fois traducteur méticuleux des philosophes existentialistes (Camus, Sartre…) et critique littéraire, il a publié une dizaine d’ouvrages à Saigon avant 1975. Ses traductions ont été régulièrement éditées dans la revue Văn entre 1964 et 1975. Dans les années 1990-2000 a continué à rédiger des articles sur la littérature et la philosophie notamment pour la revue intellectuelle Hợp Lưu (Fountain Valley, Californie). Il était connu sur sa vision « rigoriste » de la traduction qui doit savoir intégrer les forces et les faiblesses du style des auteurs.

FG

Quelques-unes de ses traductions :

  • Cậu Hoàng Con (Le petit prince) của Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
  • Giao Cảm (Noces) của Albert Camus
  • Bề Trái Và Bề Mặt (L’envers et l’endroit) của Albert Camus
  • Sa Ðọa (La chute) của Albert Camus
  • Kín Cửa (Huis Clos) của Jean-Paul Sartre
  • Phấn Ðấu Cho Một Nền Tiểu Thuyết Mới (Pour un nouveau roman) của Alain Robbe-Grillet
  • Im Lặng Của Biển Cả (Le silence de la mer) của Vercors
  • Zadig của Voltaire
  • Ao Quỷ (La mare au diable) của George Sand

Pour en savoir plus :

Page hommage de la revue Dien Dan – Forum

Bảo Bình, Dịch giả kì cựu Trần Thiện Đạo qua đời, Thể thao & Văn hóa, 28/11/2017.

Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang, Dịch giả Trần Thiện Đạo: Phải tôn trọng văn phong của tác giả, Tuoi Tre, 09/01/2007 (theo Thể thao & Văn hóa).

Lire l’interview accordée à Thụy Khuê en 2000 : Nói chuyện với dịch giả Trần Thiện Ðạo

George J. Veith & Merle Pribbenow : The Return to War: North Vietnamese Decision-Making, 1973-1975

[ndlr] Parution en ligne d’une étude de George J. Veith et Merle Pribbenow sur la reprise de la guerre après les Accords de Paris de 1973.

Edited and Annotated by George J. Veith
Translations by Merle L. Pribbenow

November 2017

In support of the Cold War International History Project’s efforts to facilitate the release of historical materials from governments on all sides of the Cold War, we have compiled 80 primary source documents dealing with North Vietnam’s decision-making from the signing of the Paris Peace Accords in January 1973 until the end of the war, April 1975. The documents are appended to this Working Paper and accessible on DigitalArchive.org.

Much of this declassified information formed the basis for the book, Black April: The Fall of South Vietnam, 1973-1975. This array of cables, memoranda, and directives provides a fascinating glimpse inside Hanoi’s choice in 1973 to return to war—despite having just signed the Paris Peace Accords. The files deliver insights into how the Politburo of the Vietnamese Workers’ Party, and its major command in the southern half of South Vietnam known as COSVN, viewed the situation after the accords. These documents clarify, to some extent, Hanoi’s decision to resume armed conflict in the south. They further outline Hanoi’s preparations in 1974 for launching a new offensive and the goals the Politburo wished to achieve, as well as the detailed military planning aimed at defeating South Vietnam. In the 1975 time-frame, the documents provide unique insights into how Hanoi’s military commanders managed the campaign that led to the rapid collapse of South Vietnam.

While this collection is voluminous, the author of and translator for this Working Paper did not include every document released by the editors of the volumes cited in the bibliography. We reviewed each document in various Vietnamese Communist publications, but only chose to translate those directly related to the fall of South Vietnam or those which provided information of broader and significant historical interest. Thus, many documents from the volumes of the Van Kien Dang series (a massive collection of nearly 40,000 pages of mostly internal Vietnamese Communist Party documents) were not translated and included in this Working Paper simply because they dealt with mundane party or economic affairs.

Although this set of documents cannot be considered definitive, it does provide one of the most detailed views of Vietnamese Communist decision-making ever unveiled for a specific period. However, the materials included in this study are almost exclusively documentary, as we chose not to incorporate information from the numerous memoirs, battle studies, or unit histories. We did, though, feature some secondary materials from the 1973 time-frame solely to help illuminate the thin documentary record on the Politburo’s decision to resume armed conflict in the South. While these other sources do generally agree on the Politburo’s review and approval process to resume the war, we suspect that the decision was not as smooth or unanimous as the Party portrays, especially after achieving a spectacular military victory in 1975.

Lire la suite : Wilson Center

Ou cliquer sur l’image ci-dessous pour accéder au PDF en ligne :

George J. Veith is the author of three books on the Vietnam War, including Code Name Bright Light: The Untold Story of U.S. POW Rescue Efforts during the Vietnam War (1998) and Black April: The Fall of South Vietnam, 1973-1975 (2013).

Merle Pribbenow is a former CIA officer who served in Vietnam from April 1970 to April 1975, and is the translator of Volume 2 of the history of the People’s Army of Vietnam, which was published by the University of Kansas Press as Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People’s Army of Vietnam, 1954-1975 (2002).

Dang Nhat minh : Mémoires d’un cinéaste vietnamien

[ndlr] Parution de la traduction des mémoires du réalisateur Dang Nhat Minh.

Dang Nhât Minh est venu au cinéma par hasard. Après ses études secondaires, il est envoyé en URSS pour apprendre le russe. Revenu à Hanoi en 1957, il devient traducteur-interprète et travaille auprès du réalisateur soviétique Aida Abrahimov, venu à Hanoi pour apprendre l’art de la réalisation cinématographique aux jeunes professionnels vietnamiens. À travers son emploi d’interprète-traducteur Dang Nhât Minh apprend en autodidacte en écoutant les leçons du réalisateur et en lisant des revues cinématographiques russes. De 1981 à 2009, ses œuvres cinématographiques, documentaires et films de fiction, en font le cinéaste vietnamien le plus reconnu, non seulement dans son pays, mais aussi à l’étranger.

En 1995 il reçoit le Nikkei Asia Prize de Culture du journal Nihon Keizai Shimbum pour les raisons suivantes : ses films expriment les sentiments des Vietnamiens ainsi que de tous les Asiatiques du monde. En 2008 la chaîne de télévision américaine CNN place son film Quand viendra le dixième mois parmi les 18 meilleurs films asiatiques de tous les temps. En Septembre 2010, l’Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences invite Dang Nhât Minh à Hollywood pour rendre hommage à ses qualités de réalisateur.

Source : Presses universitaires de AMU

 

Image « à la une » : l’actrice Lê Vân © DR

Thomas A. Bass : Censorship in Vietnam – Brave New World

[ndlr] Parution du nouvel ouvrage de Thomas Bass sur une des clés du fonctionnement de l’Etat-Parti vietnamien. A ne pas manquer.

What does censorship do to a culture? How do censors justify their work? What are the mechanisms by which censorship—and self-censorship—alter people’s sense of time and memory, truth and reality? Thomas Bass faced these questions when The Spy Who Loved Us, his account of the famous Time magazine journalist and double agent Pham Xuan An, was published in a Vietnamese edition. When the book finally appeared in 2014, after five years of negotiations with Vietnamese censors, more than four hundred passages had been altered or cut from the text.

After the book was published, Bass flew to Vietnam to meet his censors, at least the half dozen who would speak with him. In Censorship in Vietnam, he describes these meetings and examines how censorship works, both in Vietnam and elsewhere in the world. An exemplary piece of investigative reporting, Censorship in Vietnam opens a window into the country today and shows us the precarious nature of intellectual freedom in a world governed by suppression.

This is an eye-opening, disturbing, sad, and altogether fascinating account of censorship in contemporary Vietnam. Even more than that, Thomas Bass introduces us to a number of brave Vietnamese poets and fiction writers who have endured almost unimaginable hardships merely for expressing the humane values that most Americans take for granted. —Tim O’Brien, author of The Things They Carried

Thomas Bass’s account of his struggles with censorship in Vietnam is the most detailed I have encountered. It helps explain why history as a discipline is in such a sorry state in Vietnam. The past is a minefield, like the landscape.—Hue-Tam Ho Tai, author of The Country of Memory: Remaking the Past in Late Socialist Vietnam

Thomas A. Bass is the author of seven previous books, including The Spy Who Loved Us (2009) and Vietnamerica: The War Comes Home (1996). He is a Professor of English and Journalism at the State University of New York, University at Albany.

Réf. : Thomas A. Bass, Censorship in Vietnam: Brave New World, Amherst, MA, University of Massachusetts Press, 2017, 248 p. ISBN: 978-1-62534-295-9

Censorship in Vietnam – Press release

Censorship in Vietnam – Advance reviews

Gods, Heroes, and Ancestors – An Interreligious Encounter in Eighteenth-Century Vietnam. Edited and translated by Anh Q. Tran

[ndlr] Nouvelle publication, présentation de l’éditeur suivie d’une courte présentation de George Dutton (UCLA) que nous remercions vivement.

  • The first translation and study of a never-published manuscript describing local religious beliefs and practices in 18th-century Vietnam
  • Provides a new look at the struggles of early Vietnamese converts to Christianity
  • Addresses issues of early Eastern encounters of Christianity with other religions

Source : Oxford University Press

This very handsomely produced book was inspired by, and includes a translation of, the 1752 Tam Giáo Chư Vọng (The Errors of the Three Religions). The volume is organized into two sections. The first is an invaluable and detailed discussion of the religious landscape in pre-19th C Vietnam and how Catholicism related to it. It is well research and quite thorough, and the best in-depth account that I’ve encountered. The second half is a fully annotated translation of the “Errors of the Three Religions” manuscript, which is held in the MEP archives in Paris. It is in the form of an imagined question and answer disputation between a Catholic and a Confucian scholar who seeks to represent the three major religious traditions in Vietnam. The volume is a welcome addition to scholarship on early Vietnamese Catholicism.

George Dutton
UCLA

H-Diplo Roundtable XIX, 8 on Vietnam: A New History

[ndlr] Parution de la tribune H-Diplo consacrée à l’ouvrage de Christopher Goscha. Une excellente tribune à lire.

Roundtable Review
Volume XIX, No. 8 (2017)
23 October 2017

Roundtable Editors: Thomas Maddux and Diane Labrosse
Roundtable and Web Production Editor: George Fujii

Introduction by Thomas Maddux

Christopher Goscha.  Vietnam: A New History. New York: Basic Books, 2016. ISBN: 9780465094363 (hardcover, $35.00).

URL vers le PDF en ligne : http://www.tiny.cc/Roundtable-XIX-8

Voir aussi : https://networks.h-net.org/node/28443/discussions/643350/updated-h-diplo-roundtable-xix-8-vietnam-new-history

© 2017 The Authors.